Phosphorylation of Smad signaling proteins by receptor serine/threonine kinases
2001 (English)In: Protein Kinase Protocols / [ed] Alastair D. Reith, Humana Press, 2001, Vol. 124, 107-120 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members, which include TGF-βs, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), elicit their multifunctional effects by binding to and complex formation of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (see Fig. 1). Each family member signals via distinct combinations of type I and type II receptors, both of which are required for signaling. Upon formation of the heteromeric receptor complex, the type I receptor is phosphorylated by the type II receptor kinase. Phosphorylation occurs predominantly in a region rich in glycine and serine residues (GS domain) in the juxtamembrane domain of the type I receptor, which possibly leads to a conformational change and thereby activates the type I receptor kinase (see Fig. 1) (1–3). The activated type I receptor propagates the signal downstream through transient interaction with, and phosphorylation of, particular Smoeand mad related protein (Smad) molecules (1–3). Certain Smads are phosphorylated directly by activated type I receptors in a differential manner; they are therefore termed pathway-restricted Smads. Whereas Smad2 and Smad3 act in TGF-β and activin pathways, Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 are thought to act in BMP pathways. Phosphorylation occurs at the two most C-terminal serine residues in a conserved C-terminal Ser-Ser-X-Ser motif (see Fig. 2). Pathway-restricted Smads oligomerize with Smad4, which acts as a common mediator in TGF-β, activin, and BMP signaling. After translocation to the nucleus, the oligomers interact with DNA directly, or in complex with other DNA-binding proteins, and control transcription of target genes (see Figs. 1 and 2). Recently, inhibitory Smads, Smad6, and Smad7, have been identified that antagonize TGF-β family signaling (3). Fig. 1.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Humana Press, 2001. Vol. 124, 107-120 p.
, Methods in Molecular Biology, ISSN 1064-3745 ; 124
Animals, Blotting; Western/methods, COS Cells, Cell Line, Cercopithecus aethiops, DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism, Electrophoresis; Gel; Two-Dimensional/methods, Phosphates/metabolism, Phosphopeptides/chemistry, Phosphoproteins/chemistry/*metabolism, Phosphorus Radioisotopes, Phosphorylation, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism, Receptors; Cell Surface/metabolism, Recombinant Proteins/metabolism, Signal Transduction/*physiology, Trans-Activators/*metabolism, Transfection/methods, Transforming Growth Factor beta/*physiology
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-73365DOI: 10.1385/1-59259-059-4:107PubMedID: 11100470ISBN: 978-0-89603-700-7ISBN: 978-1-59259-059-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-73365DiVA: diva2:101275