Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age
2014 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 58, 25707- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background: Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity.
Design: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age <= 36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age > 36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography.
Result: Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 mu mol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (>= 0.36- <0.7 mu mol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7-1.4 mu mol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (> 1.4 mu mol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p = 0.008), and at higher gestational age (p = 0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran.
Conclusions: The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 mu mol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 58, 25707- p.
retinol, insufficiency, deficiency, maternal age, gestational age
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject Nutrition
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304929DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v58.25707ISI: 000342087100001PubMedID: 25317119ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84907890701OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-304929DiVA: diva2:1034335