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Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age
Department of Nutrition and Food Health, Faculty of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Breastfeeding Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Nutrition Department, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.
Unit for Public Health Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Unit for Public Health Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
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2014 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 58, 25707- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity.

Design: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age <= 36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age > 36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Result: Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 mu mol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (>= 0.36- <0.7 mu mol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7-1.4 mu mol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (> 1.4 mu mol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p = 0.008), and at higher gestational age (p = 0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran.

Conclusions: The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 mu mol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 58, 25707- p.
Keyword [en]
retinol, insufficiency, deficiency, maternal age, gestational age
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304929DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v58.25707ISI: 000342087100001PubMedID: 25317119ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84907890701OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-304929DiVA: diva2:1034335
Available from: 2014-10-22 Created: 2016-10-11 Last updated: 2016-10-11

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