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Sex-specific Tradeoffs With Growth and Fitness Following Life-span Extension by Rapamycin in an Outcrossing Nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
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2016 (English)In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 71, no 7, 882-890 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rapamycin inhibits the nutrient-sensing TOR pathway and extends life span in a wide range of organisms. Although life-span extension usually differs between the sexes, the reason for this is poorly understood. Because TOR influences growth, rapamycin likely affects life-history traits such as growth and reproduction. Sexes have different life-history strategies, and theory predicts that they will resolve the tradeoffs between growth, reproduction, and life span differently. Specifically, in taxa with female-biased sexual size dimorphism, reduced growth may have smaller effects on male fitness. We investigated the effects of juvenile, adult, or life-long rapamycin treatment on growth, reproduction, life span, and individual fitness in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. Life-long exposure to rapamycin always resulted in the strongest response, whereas postreproductive exposure did not affect life span. Although rapamycin resulted in longer life span and smaller size in males, male individual fitness was not affected. In contrast, size and fitness were negatively affected in females, whereas life span was only extended under high rapamycin concentrations. Our results support the hypothesis that rapamycin affects key life-history traits in a sex-specific manner. We argue that the fitness cost of life-span extension will be sex specific and propose that the smaller sex generally pay less while enjoying stronger life-span increase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 71, no 7, 882-890 p.
Keyword [en]
Antiaging, Evolution, Longevity
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304528DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glv174ISI: 000381209900006PubMedID: 26472877OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-304528DiVA: diva2:1034493
Funder
Swedish Research Council, C0636601, 621-2013-4828EU, European Research Council, St-G 2010 AGINGSEXDIFF 260885
Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-06 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Age-specific trade-offs in life-history evolution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age-specific trade-offs in life-history evolution
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Trade-offs prevent selection from driving all fitness-enhancing traits towards values that would maximize fitness. Life-history trade-offs, such as the one between survival and reproduction are well-studied, yet trade-offs can also involve behavioural or cognitive traits. Because males and females have different routes to successful reproduction, the optimal resolution of life-history trade-offs can differ between the sexes. However, shared genome can constrain the evolution of sex-specific adaptations. In this thesis, I explore the links between sex-specific life histories, cognition and behaviour. I start by linking sex differences in life histories to sex differences in learning performance in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei (Paper I). I report that age-related learning differs between the sexes and that it corresponds to sexual dimorphism in life history. Then, I use experimental evolution to select for learning performance to study the patterns of genetic correlations between learning and life-history traits in both sexes (Paper II). The results demonstrate the correlated evolution of sexual dimorphism in life history indicating sex-specific fitness costs and benefits of learning. In Paper III I use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to ask about the extent to which cognitive and demographic aging are independent. The results reveal that selection for late-life reproduction alone bears no effect on late-life learning and that joint selection on late-life learning and reproduction does not yield lifespan benefits. The selection might have affected, however, female age-specific reproductive effort. Motivated by the questions on aging I proceed to ask why a potent lifespan extending drug – rapamycin affects sexes differently (Paper IV). I take a closer look at the trade-off between growth, lifespan and reproduction and propose that the sex experiencing a stronger relationship between size and fitness pays a higher cost of lifespan extension. Finally, I focus on another sex-specific trait – dispersal (Paper V). I conduct experimental evolution to uncover a negative genetic correlation between dispersal and reproduction and show sex-specific genetic variation for dispersal. In summary, my thesis unravels the complex pattern of interdependence between life-history, behavioural and cognitive traits, where sex emerges as an important factor that can maintain genetic variation for trade-offs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 48 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1555
Keyword
life history, trade-off, learning, aging, sex differences, dispersal, Caenorhabditis, Drosophila
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329035 (URN)978-91-513-0067-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-10-27, Zootissalen, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-09-07 Last updated: 2017-10-18

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