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Validation of an Actuator Line Model Coupled to a Dynamic Stall Model for Pitching Motions Characteristic to Vertical Axis Turbines
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Center for Ocean Renewable Energy, University of New Hampshire, 24 Colovos Rd., Durham, NH 03824, USA.
Center for Ocean Renewable Energy, University of New Hampshire, 24 Colovos Rd., Durham, NH 03824, USA.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) can be used to extract renewable energy from wind flows. A simpler design, low cost of maintenance, and the ability to accept flow from all directions perpendicular to the rotor axis are some of the most important advantages over conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). However, VAWT encounter complex and unsteady fluid dynamics, which present significant modeling challenges. One of the most relevant phenomena is dynamic stall, which is caused by the unsteady variation of angle of attack throughout the blade rotation, and is the focus of the present study. Dynamic stall is usually used as a passive control for VAWT operating conditions, hence the importance of predicting its effects. In this study, a coupled model is implemented with the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM for solving the Navier-Stokes equations, where an actuator line model and dynamic stall model are used to compute the blade loading and body force. Force coefficients obtained from the model are validated with experimental data of pitching airfoil in similar operating conditions as an H-rotor type VAWT. Numerical results show reasonable agreement with experimental data for pitching motion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305170DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/753/2/022043OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-305170DiVA, id: diva2:1034497
Conference
The Science of Making Torque from Wind (TORQUE 2016)
Funder
StandUp for Wind
Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aerodynamic Studies of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines using the Actuator Line Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aerodynamic Studies of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines using the Actuator Line Model
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses the unsteady aerodynamics involved in the operation of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The main focus is to represent and understand the most relevant phenomena within the resulting flow pattern as the wake structure, loads on the different turbine components and the performance of the rotor. An actuator line model has been used for this purpose.

This model has been validated against experimental measurements from diverse cases with different operating conditions in both confined wind tunnels and open site locations. Numerical works were carried out considering a wide range of tip speed ratios (TSRs), and therefore covering from the no stall to the deep stall regime. The latter requires the implementation of a dynamic stall model for the proper representation of the unsteady forces on the blades. Also, different inlet conditions such as a uniform flow, a logarithmic wind shear and an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) have been tested. The so-called recycling method technique was used to produce the fully developed ABL flow. Additionally, the resulting wake and performance of interacting turbines has been studied.

Once the model was validated, two numerical study cases for large scale turbines were carried out. First, the performance and resulting flow field from both a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and VAWT were investigated when the turbines were operating at their optimal TSR and within the same ABL inflow boundary conditions. The influence of the variation on the atmospheric turbulence levels was also studied, as well as the differences and similarities on the obtained results for both type of turbines. Later, the performance improvement of two interacting VAWTs was investigated through the deflected wake produced by the pitched struts of the upstream turbine. This is presented as a novel mechanism to mitigate losses on interacting turbine arrangements (i.e. wind farms).

In general, there is a reasonable good agreement between numerical results and experimental measurements, and therefore, the applied ALM can be considered as a potential tool for VAWTs simulations, characterized by relatively low computational cost showing accuracy and numerical stability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 85
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1671
Keyword
wind power, vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs), actuator line model (ALM), dynamic stall model (DSM), atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), wake deflection, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348346 (URN)978-91-513-0338-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-05, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp for Wind
Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-04-11 Last updated: 2018-05-15

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