The mechanism of nuclear export of smad3 involves exportin 4 and Ran
2006 (English)In: Molecular and Cellular Biology, ISSN 0270-7306, E-ISSN 1098-5549, Vol. 26, no 4, 1318-1332 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptors phosphorylate Smad3 and induce its nuclear import so it can regulate gene transcription. Smad3 can return to the cytoplasm to propagate further cycles of signal transduction or to be degraded. We demonstrate that Smad3 is exported by a constitutive mechanism that is insensitive to leptomycin B. The Mad homology 2 (MH2) domain is responsible for Smad3 export, which requires the GTPase Ran. Inactive, GDP-locked RanT24N or nuclear microinjection of Ran GTPase activating protein 1 blocked Smad3 export. Inactivation of the Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 inhibited Smad3 export and led to nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated Smad3. A screen for importin/exportin family members that associate with Smad3 identified exportin 4, which binds a conserved peptide sequence in the MH2 domain of Smad3 in a Ran-dependent manner. Exportin 4 is sufficient for carrying the in vitro nuclear export of Smad3 in cooperation with Ran. Knockdown of endogenous exportin 4 completely abrogates the export of endogenous Smad3. A short peptide representing the minimal interaction domain in Smad3 effectively competes with Smad3 association to exportin 4 and blocks nuclear export of Smad3 in vivo. We thus delineate a novel nuclear export pathway for Smad3.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 26, no 4, 1318-1332 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-75574DOI: 10.1128/MCB.26.4.1318-1332.2006PubMedID: 16449645OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-75574DiVA: diva2:103485