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Sex-dependent gene expression in early brain development of chicken embryos
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
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2006 (English)In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 7, 12- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Differentiation of the brain during development leads to sexually dimorphic adult reproductive behavior and other neural sex dimorphisms. Genetic mechanisms independent of steroid hormones produced by the gonads have recently been suggested to partly explain these dimorphisms.

RESULTS:

Using cDNA microarrays and real-time PCR we found gene expression differences between the male and female embryonic brain (or whole head) that may be independent of morphological differentiation of the gonads. Genes located on the sex chromosomes (ZZ in males and ZW in females) were common among the differentially expressed genes, several of which (WPKCI-8, HINT, MHM non-coding RNA) have previously been implicated in avian sex determination. A majority of the identified genes were more highly expressed in males. Three of these genes (CDK7, CCNH and BTF2-P44) encode subunits of the transcription factor IIH complex, indicating a role for this complex in neuronal differentiation.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into sexually dimorphic gene expression in the embryonic chicken brain and its possible involvement in sex differentiation of the nervous system in birds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 7, 12- p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-75725DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-7-12PubMedID: 16480516OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-75725DiVA: diva2:103636
Available from: 2006-03-21 Created: 2006-03-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Genomic and Peptidomic Characterization of the Developing Avian Brain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genomic and Peptidomic Characterization of the Developing Avian Brain
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Chicken and Japanese quail are commonly used models in developmental and sex specific neuroendocrine research. There is relatively little known about the mechanisms behind their sex specific brain development, especially regarding the impact of the sex chromosomes (male: ZZ, female ZW) in relation to gonadal hormones. This thesis explores several aspects of these processes. Gene expression analysis with cDNA and Affymetrix arrays on brain tissue from both pre-gonadal embryos and embryos with differentiated gonads indicate a strong sex chromosomal presence in sexual dimorphic somatic tissue development in both chicken and Japanese quail. This sex chromosome pattern seems to remain in adult brain tissue. The data demonstrates that chicken males exhibit a significant level of Z-gene dosage compared to females in both somatic and germ line derived embryonic tissues. Several avian sex determination gene candidates (MHM non-coding RNA, DMRT1, HINTW, and HINTZ) were analyzed by real-time PCR. DMRT1 is dosage compensated in male brain tissue, in contrast to its reported gene dosage in male gonads. Early embryonic ethinylestradiol (EE2) exposure did not affect male or female neural gene expression patterns during later development. A peptidomics analysis on quail embryonic day 12 (ed12) and ed17 diencephalon by LC-MS identified over 60 endogenous peptides and analyzed the expression patterns for 38 of them with regard to age, sex and early EE2 exposure. There was a general upregulation between ed12 and ed17, but no clear sex effects were detected. Multivariate analysis indicates that EE2 exposed individuals differ from control individuals in a gender independent manner, and that Gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone related peptide 2 (GnIH-RP2) is a candidate for EE2 induced peptidomic alterations in male embryonic brain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 67 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 317
Keyword
Toxicology, Sex differentation, Sex determination, Sex chromosomes, Dosage Compensation, Genetic, Chickens, Coturnix, Gene Expression Profiling, Neuropeptides, Diencephalon, Toxikologi
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8507 (URN)978-91-554-7117-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-04, B42, BMC, Uppsala, 13:15
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Available from: 2008-03-14 Created: 2008-03-14 Last updated: 2012-02-06Bibliographically approved

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Scholz, BirgerKultima, KimMattsson, AnnaAxelsson, JeanetteBrunström, BjörnHalldin, KristerStigson, MichaelDencker, Lennart

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