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Characterization of Commercial Rye Bread Based on Sensory Properties, Fluidity Index and Chemical Acidity
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
Nofima Food, Raw Mat & Proc Optimizat, As, Norway.; Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food Sci, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Fredriksberg Copenhagen, Denmark.
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2016 (English)In: Journal of sensory studies, ISSN 0887-8250, E-ISSN 1745-459X, Vol. 31, no 4, 283-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rye bread is often considered healthy, especially regarding its potential beneficial effect on blood glucose and insulin regulation, but the characteristics of Swedish rye bread have not previously been described. The aim was to characterize commercial rye bread (n = 24) using sensory descriptive analysis (11 panelists, 15 attributes, 2 replicates), fluidity index (FI; an in vitromeasurement to predict glycemic properties), chemical acidity and selected package information. The associations between sensory and chemical measurements were explored to identify the opportunities and challenges of increased consumption of rye bread with potential health benefits.

Six categories of rye bread were identified on the basis of their sensory profiles. The FI indicated that bread from three of the categories possessed beneficial glycemic properties (FI 50–75). These categories contained 31–100% rye, displaying pH 4.3–4.8. Sensory attributes, foremost textural (e.g., chewiness), but also flavor (e.g., sourness), were highly correlated with FI values, thereby revealing their potential to aid consumers, in that they can serve as quality indicators of the glycemic properties of commercial rye bread. However, this also highlights potential sensory barriers to consumption. Front-of-package rye and sourdough labels on some samples could potentially mislead consumers given the low content of rye/sourdough, despite the labels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 31, no 4, 283-295 p.
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305430DOI: 10.1111/joss.12211ISI: 000385559600002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-305430DiVA: diva2:1037787
Funder
VINNOVASwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-18 Last updated: 2017-03-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Rye bread in Sweden: Health-related and sensory qualities, consumer perceptions and consumption patterns
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rye bread in Sweden: Health-related and sensory qualities, consumer perceptions and consumption patterns
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Rye bread has shown potential as a health-beneficial component in the diet, especially in relation to non-communicable diseases. To have a beneficial effect in reality, however, it also needs to be available, chosen and eaten. Less research has focused on rye bread from a consumer perspective. The main aim was to investigate consumption patterns, health-related and sensory qualities and consumer perceptions of bread, more specifically commercial rye bread. In Study I, secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435, 18-80 years). In Study II, commercial rye breads (n=24) were characterized by sensory descriptive analysis; the in vitro measurement fluidity index (FI) was used to predict glycemic properties, and chemical acidity was measured. Study III was a consumer test (n=398, 18-80 years), where acceptance and perceptions of nine rye breads were investigated. Study IV was a web-based and postal sequential mixed-mode survey (n=1,134, 18-80 years) with open-ended items covering health-related perceptions of bread. Consumers with the lowest intake of whole grain and rye bread were from younger age groups, families with children and groups with lower educational levels. Health-related and sensory properties of commercial rye bread varied widely. The FI indicated more beneficial glycemic properties in half of the samples and this was associated with a chewy, dry texture and sour flavor. The younger consumer group (18-44 years) differed in their liking compared to the older group (45-80 years) and displayed a preference toward bread with less whole grain and rye, although different clusters were identified. Rye bread liking was associated with bread type consumed in childhood, food choice motives and educational level. Most (75%) knew of bread they considered healthy. Coarse, whole grain, fiber, sourdough and rye were perceived to be good for the stomach, bowel and, to have good satiation and glycemic properties. Few health claims have been authorized, making it challenging for consumers to identify bread with these properties. Front-of-package label indicating rye bread was sometimes found on breads with very little rye flour. Sensory attributes, foremost textural and flavor, e.g., sourness, correlated with beneficial FI values and could thereby help guide consumers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 97 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 138
Keyword
national dietary survey, sensory analysis, preference mapping, sourdough, whole grain, public health, health promotion
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316598 (URN)978-91-554-9847-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-28, A1:111a, Biomedical Centre (BMC), Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-07 Created: 2017-03-09 Last updated: 2017-04-21

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Sandvik, PernillaMarklinder, IngelaNydahl, MargarethaKihlberg, Iwona
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