dOFV distributions: A New Diagnostic For The Adequacy Of Parameter Uncertainty In Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Models Applied To The Bootstrap
2016 (English)In: Journal Of Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics, ISSN 1567-567X, Vol. 43, no 6, 597-608 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Knowledge of the uncertainty in model parameters is essential for decision-making in drug development. Contrarily to other aspects of nonlinear mixed effects models (NLMEM), scrutiny towards assumptions around parameter uncertainty is low, and no diagnostic exists to judge whether the estimated uncertainty is appropriate. This work aims at introducing a diagnostic capable of assessing the appropriateness of a given parameter uncertainty distribution. The new diagnostic was applied to case bootstrap examples in order to investigate for which dataset sizes case bootstrap is appropriate for NLMEM. The proposed diagnostic is a plot comparing the distribution of differences in objective function values (dOFV) of the proposed uncertainty distribution to a theoretical Chi square distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of estimated model parameters. The uncertainty distribution was deemed appropriate if its dOFV distribution was overlaid with or below the theoretical distribution. The diagnostic was applied to the bootstrap of two real data and two simulated data examples, featuring pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models and datasets of 20-200 individuals with between 2 and 5 observations on average per individual. In the real data examples, the diagnostic indicated that case bootstrap was unsuitable for NLMEM analyses with around 70 individuals. A measure of parameter-specific "effective" sample size was proposed as a potentially better indicator of bootstrap adequacy than overall sample size. In the simulation examples, bootstrap confidence intervals were shown to underestimate inter-individual variability at low sample sizes. The proposed diagnostic proved a relevant tool for assessing the appropriateness of a given parameter uncertainty distribution and as such it should be routinely used.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 43, no 6, 597-608 p.
Parameter uncertainty distributions, Bootstrap, Model diagnostics, Nonlinear mixed-effects models
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303628DOI: 10.1007/s10928-016-9496-7ISI: 000388634800004PubMedID: 27730481OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-303628DiVA: diva2:1038967
FunderEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 115156