Surface defect passivation by a thin metallic barrier for Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2 co-evaporation on Cr-steel substrates
2016 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 619, 220-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The use of Cr-steel substrates for the fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells is highly desirable and is a topic of considerable research interest. However, solar cells on non-treated steel substrates often exhibit decreased performance compared to their homologues on soda lime glass substrates. This is partly attributed to out-diffusion of steel components (Fe, Cr, Mn, etc.) into the solar cell. To avoid this contamination, thin film barriers can be added on top of the steel surface, but they do not always prevent the diffusion completely. In this paper we study the potential of using Cr and Ti as thin barrier layers. We find that local surface defects on the steel, several micrometers in height, lead to cracks in the back contact as well as in the barrier layers. Advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques reveal that elemental diffusion and chemical reactions occur at these openings during heat treatments in Se atmosphere. TEM-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX) analysis in combination with calculation of the solid state diffusion coefficient demonstrate that a Cr-barrier sacrificially protects the Cr-steel substrate, blocking most of the Fe out-diffusion, whereas a Ti-barrier is less efficient.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 619, 220-226 p.
Back contact; Thin film; Solar cell; Steel substrate; CuInGaSe2; Electron microscopy; Diffusion; Barrier
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Condensed Matter Physics Energy Systems
Research subject Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Analysis; Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307368DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2016.10.063ISI: 000389610900033OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-307368DiVA: diva2:1046433