Zero Thermal Noise in Resistors at Zero Temperature
2016 (English)In: Fluctuation and Noise Letters, ISSN 0219-4775, E-ISSN 1793-6780, Vol. 15, no 3, 1640001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The bandwidth of transistors in logic devices approaches the quantum limit, where Johnsonnoise and associated error rates are supposed to be strongly enhanced. However, the related theory — asserting a temperature-independent quantum zero-point (ZP) contribution to Johnson noise, which dominates the quantum regime — is controversial and resolution of the controversy is essential to determine the real error rate and fundamental energy dissipation limits of logic gates in the quantum limit. The Callen–Welton formula (fluctuation–dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise for a resistance is the sum of Nyquist’s classical Johnson noise equation and a quantum ZP term with a power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. The classical Johnson–Nyquist formula vanishes at the approach of zero temperature, but the quantum ZP term still predicts non-zero noise voltage and current. Here, we show that this noise cannot be reconciled with the Fermi–Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. Consequently,Johnson noise must be nil at zero temperature, and non-zero noise found for certain experimental arrangements may be a measurement artifact, such as the one mentioned in Kleen’s uncertainty relation argument.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Scientific, 2016. Vol. 15, no 3, 1640001
Engineering and Technology
Research subject Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307587DOI: 10.1142/S0219477516400010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-307587DiVA: diva2:1047428