Genetics and epigenetics in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours
2016 (English)In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 280, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Neuroendocrine tumour of the small intestine (SI-NET), formerly known as midgut carcinoid tumour, is the most common small intestinal malignancy. The incidence is rising, with recent reports of 0.67 per 100 000 in the USA and 1.12 per 100 000 in Sweden. SI-NETs often present a challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment, as patients often have widespread disease and are beyond cure by surgery. Somatostatin analogues provide the mainstay of medical treatment to control hormonal excess and increase the time to progression. Despite overall favourable prognosis (5-year overall survival of 65%), there is a need to find markers to identify both patients with worse outcome and new targets for therapy. Loss on chromosome 18 has been reported in 60-90% of SI-NETs, but mutated genes on this chromosome have failed detection. Recently, a putative tumour suppressor role has been suggested for TCEB3C occurring at 18q21 (encoding elongin A3), which may undergo epigenetic repression. CDKN1B has recently been revealed as the only recurrently mutated gene in SI-NETs but, with a frequency as low as 8%, its role as a driver in SI-NET development may be questioned. Integrated genomewide analysis including exome and whole-genome sequencing, gene expression, DNA methylation and copy number analysis has identified three novel molecular subtypes of SI-NET with differing clinical outcome. DNA methylation analysis has demonstrated that SI-NETs have significant epigenetic dysregulation in 70-80% of tumours. In this review, we focus on understanding of the genetic, epigenetic and molecular events that lead to development and progression of SI-NETs.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 280, no 6
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307770DOI: 10.1111/joim.12526PubMedID: 27306880OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-307770DiVA: diva2:1048337