Recently, two web-based dietary assessment tools were developed; a 4-day food record tool (the Riksmaten method), and a food frequency questionnaire (MiniMeal-Q). The aim of this study was to use objective biomarkers to examine the ability of the two methods to capture habitual dietary intake.
In total, 200 individuals from the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) participated. Plasma concentration of carotenoids were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and used as biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake. A gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was used to quantify alkylresorcinol homologues, which were used as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake.
The correlations between energy-adjusted fruit and vegetable intakes and plasma carotenoid concentrations (except lycopene) were stronger amongst women than men (r = 0.46 and r = 0.20 for the Riksmaten method, and r = 0.50 and r = 0.31 for MiniMeal-Q, respectively). For whole grains, the correlations of energy-adjusted intakes and alkylresorcinols were higher using the Riksmaten method (r = 0.30 and r = 0.29 for women and men) than the MiniMeal-Q (r = 0.25 and r = 0.20, respectively). In regression analyses between plasma carotenoids (except lycopene) and reported intake of fruits and vegetables, the R2 were 21.6 % and 5.1 % for women and men by the Riksmaten method, and correspondingly, 18.0 % and 6.6 % by the MiniMeal-Q. In the final full models, adjusted for smoking and BMI, all regression models remained statistically significant. The regression analyses of plasma alkylresorcinols and reported intake of whole grains showed an R2 of 9.4 % and 9.7 % for women and men by the Riksmaten method, and correspondingly, 5.3 % and 8.4 % by the MiniMeal-Q. In the final full models, adjusted for smoking and age, all regression models remained statistically significant, except for women in MiniMeal-Q.
Both dietary assessment methods were able to capture dietary intake based on food groups with a similar precision. Agreements with objective biomarkers ranged from low to moderate, depending on sex and diet quality indicator. While the ability to capture whole grain intake was weak for both methods and sexes, the assessment of vegetable and fruit intake performed in a satisfactory manner for women in both methods.
2016. Vol. 2, no 53
Dietary assessment, Web-based, Validation, Biomarkers, Carotenoids, Alkylresorcinols