Phylogenies and the radiation of animals around the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
2005 (English)In: DIVERSITAS Open Science Conference 2005: Integrating biodiversity science for human well-being, 2005, 39- p.Conference paper (Other scientific)
Historical, phylogeny-based biogeography plays a crucial role in understanding how present-day biodiversity has been generated. Biogeographic reconstructions can be used to identify “relict” biotas, whose long-term survival is threatened, or to predict the response of species to long-term climatic changes.
So far, however, the role of historical biogeography in conservation decisions has been limited by the lack of an appropriate method of biogeographic analysis. Traditional (cladistic) methods search for general patterns of distribution as evidence of a common biogeographic history, but ignore the evolutionary processes creating such patterns, or the time of origin and ecology of the organisms studied. Moreover, biogeographic analyses are usually restricted to one or few organisms, making them of limited value for conservation policies.
Recently, new methods of biogeographic analysis have been developed that allow incorporating processes into the analysis (the “event-based approach”). Here, I describe how these methods, together with large data sets of phylogenies and statistical evaluation of results, allow us for the first time to test specific biogeographic hypotheses at a large, intercontinental scale. For example, comparison of a large dated set of Holarctic animal phylogenies reveals that faunal migration over the Bering Bridge was controlled by the prevailing climatic conditions, so its importance as a dispersal route changed considerably over time. Phylogeny-based estimates of species richness among Holarctic infraregions suggest that the higher extant diversity of the Asian fauna was probably the result of higher diversification rates during the Tertiary. Although patterns of diversity in the Southern Hemisphere are usually attributed to vicariant events associated to Gondwana’s break-up, a recent meta-analysis of plant and animal phylogenies suggests that long-distance dispersal has played a major role in the radiation of Southern Hemisphere plants.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. 39- p.
Phylogeny, Biodiversity science, Biogeography
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-77277OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-77277DiVA: diva2:105189