Callback: Efficient Synchronization without Invalidation with a Directory Just for Spin-Waiting
2015 (English)In: 2015 ACM/IEEE 42Nd Annual International Symposium On Computer Architecture (ISCA), 2015, 427-438 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Cache coherence protocols based on self-invalidation allow a simpler design compared to traditional invalidation-based protocols, by relying on data-race-free (DRF) semantics and applying self-invalidation on racy synchronization points exposed to the hardware. Their simplicity lies in the absence of invalidation traffic, which eliminates the need to track readers in a directory, and reduces the number of transient protocol states. With the addition of self-downgrade these protocols can become effectively directory-free. While this works well for race free data, unfortunately, lack of explicit invalidations compromises the effectiveness of any synchronization that relies on races. This includes any form of spin waiting, which is employed for signaling, locking, and barrier primitives. In this work we propose a new solution for spin-waiting in these protocols, the callback mechanism, that is simpler and more efficient than explicit invalidation. Callbacks are set by reads involved in spin waiting, and are satisfied by writes (that can even precede these reads). To implement callbacks we use a small (just a few entries) directory-cache structure that is intended to service only these "spin-waiting" races. This directory structure is self-contained and is not backed up in any way. Entries are created on demand and can be evicted without the need to preserve their information. Our evaluation shows a significant improvement both over explicit invalidation and over exponential back-off the state-of-the-art mechanism for self-invalidation protocols to avoid spinning in the shared cache.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. 427-438 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-309515DOI: 10.1145/2749469.2750405ISI: 000380455700034ISBN: 9781450334020OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-309515DiVA: diva2:1051906
ACM/IEEE 42nd Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA), JUN 13-17, 2015, Portland, OR