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Ambient air-processed mixed-ion perovskites for high-efficiency solar cells
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 42, p. 16536-16545Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mixed-ion (FAPbI(3))(1-x)(MAPbBr(3))(x) perovskite solar cells have achieved power conversion efficiencies surpassing 20%. However, in order to obtain these high efficiencies the preparation is performed in a controlled inert atmosphere. Here, we report a procedure for manufacturing highly efficient solar cells with a mixed-ion perovskite in ambient atmosphere. By including a heating step at moderate temperatures of the mesoporous titanium dioxide substrates, and spin-coating the perovskite solution on the warm substrates in ambient air, a red intermediate phase is obtained. Annealing the red phase at 100 degrees C results in a uniform and crystalline perovskite film, whose thickness is dependent on the substrate temperature prior to spin-coating. The temperature was optimized between 20 and 100 degrees C and it was observed that 50 degrees C substrate temperature yielded the best solar cell performances. The average efficiency of the best device was 17.6%, accounting for current-voltage (I-V) measurement hysteresis, with 18.8% performance in the backward scan direction and 16.4% in the forward scan direction. Our results show that it is possible to manufacture high-efficiency mixed-ion perovskite solar cells under ambient conditions, which is relevant for large-scale and low-cost device manufacturing processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 4, no 42, p. 16536-16545
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310043DOI: 10.1039/c6ta06912fISI: 000387166900031OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-310043DiVA, id: diva2:1054742
Funder
Göran Gustafsson Foundation for promotion of scientific research at Uppala University and Royal Institute of TechnologySwedish Energy AgencyÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development)Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research CouncilAvailable from: 2016-12-09 Created: 2016-12-09 Last updated: 2018-01-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Preparation and Characterization of Lead Halide Perovskites: Towards sustainable, cost-effective and upscalable solar cell manufacture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparation and Characterization of Lead Halide Perovskites: Towards sustainable, cost-effective and upscalable solar cell manufacture
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The perovskite solar cell (PSC) is a recent contender within the photovoltaic research field. In a matter of a few years, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC has catapulted from 4% to above 22%, which represents one of the fastest developments in the field. The PSC band-gap tunability makes them interesting for use in tandem solar cells with other established solar cell technologies. This thesis focuses on exploring the photophysics of the perovskite material as well as the development of different perovskite preparation processes and materials for potential use in large-scale manufacture and tandem solar cell applications.

First, the photoconductivity of a perovskite film deposited on different metal oxide nanoparticle layers is investigated. The results show that the perovskite can generate free charge carriers without the presence of an electron acceptor.

Secondly, we constructed PSCs with a conducting carbon-nanotube film, as a replacement for both the hole-selective layer and the metallic back electrode, which yielded a PCE of 15.5%. Furthermore, we explored the preparation of semitransparent PSCs for tandem solar cells by using atomic-layer deposition (ALD) for depositing a thin electron-selective metal-oxide layer. We were successful using ALD directly on a perovskite layer without damage to the perovskite. Although the PSCs did not yield high PCE, the study marks a step in further development for direct ALD deposition onto the perovskite.

Finally, we developed two different methods concerning sustainable manufacture of PSCs. The first method was based on the synthesis of the mixed-ion (FAPbI3)0.87(MAPbBr3)0.17 perovskite in ambient air, which had hitherto only been possible in inert atmosphere. The best PSC was obtained by depositing the perovskite onto a 50°C warm substrate in ambient air yielding a PCE of 17.7%. In the second method, only non-hazardous solvents, water and isopropanol, were used in the synthesis of Cs0.1FA0.9Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3. It is the first publication of mixed inorganic and organic cation perovskite synthesis using a two-step preparation procedure with only non-hazardous solvents and the process yielded a PCE of 13.0%. The method allows for complete ionic control of the perovskite and further variation and improvements are therefore possible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 83
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1628
Keywords
perovskite solar cells, perovskite, photoconductivity, carbon nanotubes, transparent contact, ambient processing, water-based
National Category
Physical Chemistry Energy Systems Nano Technology
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340508 (URN)978-91-513-0229-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-23, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2018-02-27 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-04-03

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Sveinbjörnsson, KáriAitola, KerttuZhang, JinbaoJohansson, Malin B.Zhang, XiaoliangHagfeldt, AndersBoschloo, GerritJohansson, Erik M. J.

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Sveinbjörnsson, KáriAitola, KerttuZhang, JinbaoJohansson, Malin B.Zhang, XiaoliangHagfeldt, AndersBoschloo, GerritJohansson, Erik M. J.
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