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Rhino Vax is an efficient adjuvant in oral immunization of young chickens and cholera toxin B is an effective oral primer in traditional subcutaneous immunization with Freund's incomplete adjuvant
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Försöksdjursvetenskap. (Hau)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Försöksdjursvetenskap. (Hau)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Försöksdjursvetenskap. (Hau)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Försöksdjursvetenskap. (Hau)
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2005 (English)In: In Vivo, ISSN 0258-851X, Vol. 19, 375-382 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forty-five approximately 50% in-bred 14-day-old White Leghorn female chickens (Gallus domesticus) originating from 11 hens were distributed into 5 treatment groups containing one sister in each treatment group. Phase 1 involved oral administration of an antigen, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), in combination with various adjuvant preparations, either Cholera Toxin B-subunit (CTB) and/or RhinoVax® (RV). A positive control group received BSA emulsified in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA) by subcutaneous injection. All chickens responded with immunospecific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies in their circulation. Classical parenteral immunisation with FIA was generally the most potent mode of antigen administration. The highest immunospecific IgG concentrations recorded in the orally-immunised chickens were in the group immunised with 20% RV as the adjuvant. The concentration in this group was approximately 5 times lower than that recorded in the FIA group. For practical egg yolk polyclonal antibody production purposes, the oral regime using 20% RV as adjuvant seems an attractive alternative to the more invasive technique of injecting the antigen in FIA emulsions. In Phase 2 all chickens were subjected to traditional subcutaneous immunisation with a new antigen, human IgG emulsified in FIA. The two groups of chickens that had received CTB orally during Phase 1 responded with significantly higher immunospecific antibody concentrations than did the other chickens, indicating that oral administration of CTB prior to traditional parenteral immunisation may have a priming effect on the humoral immune system. The immunospecific antibody response varied between the 11 families of chickens. There was no correlation between familial responsiveness to oral and subcutaneous immunisations. Families that were high responders to oral immunisation were not high responders to parenteral immunisation and vice versa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 19, 375-382 p.
Keyword [en]
adjuvant, animal welfare, chicken, cholera toxin B, Freund's incomplete adjuvan, oral immunisation, RhinoVax®
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-79155PubMedID: 15796200OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-79155DiVA: diva2:107068
Available from: 2006-04-04 Created: 2006-04-04 Last updated: 2009-10-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Non-invasive Antibody Production in the Chicken
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-invasive Antibody Production in the Chicken
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The production of antibodies for analytical purposes using invasive procedures on small mammals is common practice in biomedical research. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient method for non-invasive antibody production in the chicken. This thesis presents an alternative method that eliminates the discomfort, pain and distress invoked by traditional immunization procedures on mammals by instead harvesting antibodies (IgY) from the yolk of eggs laid by orally immunized hens.

An efficient oral immunization regime was developed by first trying out a suitable non-aggressive oral adjuvant with Bovine Serum Albumine (BSA) as the model antigen. It was found that the pegylated mono/diglyceride RhinoVax® (Softigen®) at a concentration of 20% (v/v) produced a good humoral antibody response in chickens as well as development of IgY antibodies in the egg yolk. The age of the chicken is important in order to have a proper humoral immune response. We found that chicken older than 22 days produced circulating immunospecific anti BSA-antibodies of of IgG, IgM and IgA class when orally immunized with BSA alone, whereas chickens 15 days old only produced IgM and IgA antibodies.

This is the first report of oral immunizations with a high dose (250–300mg) of BSA in 20% RhinoVax® consisting of 3 or 5 consecutive daily doses resulting in high concentrations of immunospecific IgY antibodies in the yolk. Using this technique of three consecutive daily doses repeated after 7 weeks and after 18 weeks, a booster effect was induced after the third immunization. This is the first demonstration of a clear anamnestic immune response in orally immunized chickens. The results suggest that it may be possible to further increase the concentration of immunospecific IgY antibodies by modifying the immunization regime. It seems plausible to develop a procedure where the immunogen can be fed to the chickens as in an ordinary egg producing farm thus making antibody production not classified as an animal experiment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 64 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 461
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Research subject
försöksdjursvetenskap/comparative medicine
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-102072 (URN)978-91-554-7543-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-06-12, Lektionssal B7:101, Uppsala Biomedicinska Centrum - BMC, Husargatan 8, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Available from: 2009-05-19 Created: 2009-04-30 Last updated: 2009-05-19Bibliographically approved

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