Reducing the fitness cost of antibiotic resistance by amplification of initiator tRNA genes
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 103, no 18, 6976-6981 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Deformylase inhibitors belong to a novel antibiotic class that targets peptide deformylase, a bacterial enzyme that removes the formyl group from N-terminal methionine in nascent polypeptides. Using the bacterium Salmonella enterica, we isolated mutants with resistance toward the peptide deformylase inhibitor actinonin. Resistance mutations were identified in two genes that are required for the formylation of methionyl (Met) initiator tRNA (tRNAi)(fMet): the fmt gene encoding the enzyme methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase and the folD gene encoding the bifunctional enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase and -cyclohydrolase. In the absence of antibiotic, these resistance mutations conferred a fitness cost that was manifested as a reduced growth rate in laboratory medium and in mice. By serially passaging the low-fitness mutants in growth medium without antibiotic, the fitness costs could be partly ameliorated either by intragenic mutations in the fmt/folD genes or by extragenic compensatory mutations. Of the extragenically compensated fmt mutants, approximately one-third carried amplifications of the identical, tandemly repeated metZ and metW genes, encoding tRNAi. The increase in metZW gene copy number varied from 5- to 40-fold and was accompanied by a similar increase in tRNAi levels. The rise in tRNAi level compensated for the lack of methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase activity and allowed translation initiation to proceed with nonformylated methionyl tRNAi. Amplified units varied in size from 1.9 to 94 kbp. Suppression of deleterious mutations by gene amplification may be involved in the evolution of new gene functions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 103, no 18, 6976-6981 p.
Amidohydrolases/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/metabolism, Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism/pharmacology, Drug Resistance/*genetics, Evolution; Molecular, Gene Expression Regulation; Bacterial, Hydroxamic Acids/metabolism/pharmacology, Mice, Mutation, RNA; Transfer; Met/*genetics/metabolism, Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects/enzymology/genetics
Biological Sciences Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-80312DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0602171103PubMedID: 16636273OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-80312DiVA: diva2:108226