Cigarette smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a population-based case-control study
2005 (English)In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 14, no 7, 1791-1796 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence of an association between tobacco smoking and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has been conflicting. This may reflect that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma comprises several distinct disease entities with different etiologies, as some studies have indicated an association between smoking and follicular lymphoma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between cigarette smoking and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk, overall and by subtype. METHODS: As part of a nationwide Danish-Swedish population-based case-control study, we interviewed 3,055 incident non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients and 3,187 population controls. All lymphomas were uniformly classified according to the WHO classification. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between cigarette smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking was not associated with the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma overall (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87-1.08) nor with the major subgroups such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.79-1.10), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72-1.02), or follicular lymphoma (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.85-1.24). Female smokers were at a marginally increased risk of follicular lymphoma (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92). Men who had ever smoked had a significantly increased risk of T-cell lymphoma (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11-2.51). No dose-response association with cigarette smoking could be established for any lymphoma subgroup. CONCLUSION: We found little evidence of an association between cigarette smoking and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk overall. Although increased risks of follicular lymphoma in female smokers and of T-cell lymphoma in male smokers were suggested, no dose-response relationship was observed, leaving limited support for causality.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 14, no 7, 1791-1796 p.
Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Case-Control Studies, Denmark/epidemiology, Educational Status, Female, Humans, Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin/*etiology, Male, Middle Aged, Population Surveillance/*methods, Research Support; N.I.H.; Extramural, Research Support; Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support; U.S. Gov't; P.H.S., Risk, Smoking/*adverse effects, Sweden/epidemiology
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-80559DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0077PubMedID: 16030118OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-80559DiVA: diva2:108473