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Flutamide metabolism in four different species in vitro and identification of flutamide metabolites in human patient urine by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Analytisk Farmaceutisk kemi.
Department of Pharmacy.
Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Farm biokemi.
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2006 (English)In: Drug Metab Dispos, ISSN 0090-9556, Vol. 34, no 6, 984-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 34, no 6, 984-92 p.
Keyword [en]
Androgen Antagonists/*metabolism/therapeutic use/urine, Animals, Antineoplastic Agents; Hormonal/*metabolism/therapeutic use/urine, Biotransformation, Chromatography; Liquid, Comparative Study, Dogs, Flutamide/*analogs & derivatives/*metabolism/standards/therapeutic use/urine, Glucuronidase, Humans, In Vitro, Male, Microsomes; Liver/metabolism, Prostate/metabolism, Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/*metabolism/urine, Rats, Spectrometry; Mass; Electrospray Ionization, Swine
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-80893PubMedID: 16540588OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-80893DiVA: diva2:108807
Available from: 2007-03-03 Created: 2007-03-03 Last updated: 2011-01-11
In thesis
1. Detection and Structure Elucidation of Drug Metabolites in Biological Samples using HPLC-MS/MS Techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection and Structure Elucidation of Drug Metabolites in Biological Samples using HPLC-MS/MS Techniques
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the structure elucidation of drug metabolites in biological samples by the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) atmospheric pressure ionization (API) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Due to their different advantages, various mass analyzers have been used in the different experiments.

The metabolism of clemastine, flutamide, and meloxicam were studied in vitro and/or in vivo in different species such as humans, dogs, and horses. Accurate mass measurements with the quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer and MSn data supplied by the ion trap instrument were useful in the structural investigation of the product ions of the drugs and their metabolites. Different scan modes of the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer resulted in great flexibility, selectivity, and sensitivity in the qualitative and semi-quantitative studies. Additionally, hydrogen/deuterium exchange and experiments with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization were conducted, and the fungus Cunninghamella elegans was utilized to produce amounts of drug metabolites sufficient for structural investigation.

Six isomers of oxidized clemastine were detected and characterized in C. elegans incubations and their retention times and mass spectral data were compared to the metabolites detected in urine samples. Two of the metabolites were concluded to be diastereomeric N-oxides.

In urine from horses treated with meloxicam, the peak of 5'-hydroxymethylmeloxicam resulted in much higher intensity than the parent drug or the other metabolites, and it was detectable for at least 14 days after the last dose in some of the horses. That is useful information in the development of analytical methods for the detection of prohibited use of meloxicam.

A mercapturic acid conjugate of hydroxyflutamide was detected in urine from cancer patients, which indicated that a reactive metabolite was formed. This metabolite could be responsible for the adverse events reported for flutamide.

The results from the four papers included in the thesis clearly demonstrate the usefulness and the flexibility of the HPLC-API-MS/MS technique.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 73 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 1651-6192 ; 90
National Category
Medicinal Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98348 (URN)978-91-554-7437-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-04-03, B22, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Available from: 2009-03-13 Created: 2009-02-19 Last updated: 2009-03-17Bibliographically approved

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Tevell, AnnicaLennernäs, HansNorlin, MariaBondesson, UlfHedeland, Mikael
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Department of Medicinal ChemistryDepartment of PharmacyDepartment of Pharmaceutical Biosciences

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