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Practical limitations to selenium annealing of compound co-sputtered Cu2ZnSnS4 as a route to achieving sulfur-selenium graded solar cell absorbers
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Univ Oslo, Ctr Mat Sci & Nanotechnol, Dept Phys, POB 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Univ Oslo, Ctr Mat Sci & Nanotechnol, Dept Phys, POB 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
Univ Oslo, Ctr Mat Sci & Nanotechnol, Dept Phys, POB 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
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2017 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 623, p. 110-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The suitability of selenium annealing as a technique to introduce energy band gap gradients via sulfur selenium substitution in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films is evaluated. Compound co-sputtered CZTS precursors are annealed in selenium atmosphere at 425 degrees C, either as-deposited or after a short time sulfur pre-anneal. The films are investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, and the spatial distribution of elemental species measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Sulfur-selenium gradients are not achieved for the as-deposited precursor. Sulfur-selenium gradients are achieved in the early stages of annealing for pre-anneal samples, where Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)(4) (CZTSSe) formation is found to be correlated spatially with sodium distribution. These gradients are lost as the annealing progresses. Selenisation occurs by CZTSSe grain growth, rather than by direct substitution of selenium for sulfur. The spatial correlation of high sodium concentration with CZTSSe formation suggests that liquid phase sodium selenide facilitates selenium incorporation during recrystallisation, limiting the practicality of anion-grading of CZTSSe during the annealing step as a means of establishing a graded band gap.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA , 2017. Vol. 623, p. 110-115
Keywords [en]
CZTSSe, Diffusion, Crystallisation, Sodium, Band gap gradient
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320783DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2016.12.044ISI: 000394191300016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-320783DiVA, id: diva2:1090753
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2017-04-25Bibliographically approved

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Ross, NilsLarsen, JesPlatzer-Björkman, Charlotte

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