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Zinc-Tin-Oxide Buffer Layer and Low Temperature Post Annealing Resulting in a 9.0% Efficient Cd-Free Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cell
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Ångström Solar Center)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4125-4002
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2017 (English)In: Solar RRL, ISSN 2367-198XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Zn1−xSnxOy (ZTO) has yielded promising results as a buffer material for the full sulfur Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), with efficiencies continuously surpassing its CdS-references. ZTO can be deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling tuning of the conduction band position through the choice of metal ratio or deposition temperature. Thus, an optimization of the conduction band alignment between ZTO and CZTS can be achieved. The ZTO bandgap is generally larger than that of CdS and can therefore yield higher currents due to reduced losses in the short wavelength region. Another advantage is the possibility to omit the toxic Cd. In this study, the ALD process temperature was varied from 105 to 165 °C. Current-blocked devices were obtained at 105 °C, while the highest open-circuit voltage and device efficiency was achieved for 145 °C. The highest fill factor was seen at 165 °C. The best efficiency reached in this study was 9.0%, which, to our knowledge, is the highest efficiency reported for Cd-free full-sulfur CZTS. We also show that the effect of heat needs to be taken into account. The results indicate that part of the device improvement comes from heating the absorber, but that the benefit of using a ZTO-buffer is clear.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321006DOI: 10.1002/solr.201700001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-321006DiVA: diva2:1091772
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 32787Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , FFL12-0178Swedish Research Council, 2015-04558Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2012.0144
Available from: 2017-04-27 Created: 2017-04-27 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved

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The full text will be freely available from 2018-04-07 00:00
Available from 2018-04-07 00:00

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Ericson, ToveLarsson, FredrikTörndahl, TobiasFrisk, ChristopherLarsen, JesKosyak, VolodymyrHägglund, CarlLi, ShuyiPlatzer Björkman, Charlotte
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Solid State Electronics
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