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Chemical Distribution of Multiple Cation (Rb+, Cs+, MA+, and FA+) Perovskite Materials by Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2412-8503
(Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne, Switzerland)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States. (Laboratory for Photomolecular Science, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne, Switzerland)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3860-1149
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
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2017 (English)In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 29, 3589-3596 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lead-based mixed perovskite materials have emerged in the last couple of years as promising photovoltaic materials. Recently, it was shown that improved material stability can be achieved by incorporating small amounts of inorganic cations (Cs+  and Rb+ ), partially replacing the more common organic cations (e.g., methylammonium, MA, and formamidinium, FA). Especially, a mixed cation composition containing Rb+ , Cs+ , MA+ , and FA+  was recently shown to have benefi cial optoelectronic properties and was stable at elevated temperature. This work focuses on the composition of this material using synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy. Diff erent probing depths were considered by changing the photon energy of the X-ray source providing insights on the chemical composition and the chemical distribution near the surface of the samples. Perovskite materials containing two, three, or four monovalent cations were analyzed and compared.

The presence of Cs and Rb was observed both at the sample surface and toward the bulk, and we found that in the presence of three or four cations, less unreacted PbI2  remains in the sample. Interestingly, Rb and Cs appear to act jointly resulting in a different cation depth profile compared to that of the triple counterparts. Our findings provide significant understanding of the intricate depth-dependent chemical composition in perovskite materials using the common practice of cation mixing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACS Publications, 2017. Vol. 29, 3589-3596 p.
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321392DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00126OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-321392DiVA: diva2:1092824
Available from: 2017-05-04 Created: 2017-05-04 Last updated: 2017-05-04

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