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Surface Layer Evolution on Graphite During Electrochemical Sodium-tetraglyme Co-intercalation
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8019-2801
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
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2017 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 14, 12373-12381 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One obstacle in sodium ion batteries is the lack of suitable anode materials. As recently shown, the most common anode material of the state of the art lithium ion batteries, graphite, can be used for sodium ion storage as well, if ether based electrolyte solvents are used. These solvents cointercalate with the sodium ions leading to the highly reversible formation of ternary graphite intercalation compounds (t-GIC). In order for the solvent cointercalation to work efficiently, it is expected that only a very thin surface layer forms during electrochemical cycling. In this article, we therefore present the first dedicated study of the surface layer evolution on t-QICs using soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This technique with its inherent high surface sensitivity and low probing depth is an ideal tool to study the underlying interfacial reactions during the sodiation and desodiation of graphite. In this report, we apply this approach to graphite composite electrodes cycled in Na half cells with a 1 M sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (NaFSI/TEG-DME) electrolyte. We have found a surface layer on the cycled electrodes, mainly composed of salt decomposition products and hydrocarbons, in line with irreversible capacity losses observed in the electrochemical cycling. Although this surface layer does not seem to block cointercalation completely, it seems to affect its efficiency resulting in a low Coulombic efficiency of the studied battery system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC , 2017. Vol. 9, no 14, 12373-12381 p.
Keyword [en]
Na-ion batteries, photoelectron spectroscopy, graphite, solid electrolyte interphase, ether -based electrolytes, TEG-DME, polyacrylic acid, NaFSI
National Category
Nano Technology Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-322182DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b16536ISI: 000399354100025PubMedID: 28338314OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-322182DiVA: diva2:1096120
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 245-2014-668Swedish Research Council, 2012-3837EU, European Research Council, 608575
Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved

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Maibach, JuliaJeschull, FabianBrandell, DanielEdström, KristinaValvo, Mario
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