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Interaction intensity and pollinator-mediated selection
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2688-7992
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9573-2463
2017 (English)In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 214, no 3, p. 1381-1389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In animal-pollinated plants, the opportunity for selection and the strength of pollinatormediated selection are expected to increase with the degree of pollen limitation. However, whether differences in pollen limitation can explain variation in pollinator-mediated and net selection among animal-pollinated species is poorly understood. In the present study, we quantified pollen limitation, variance in relative fitness and pollinator- mediated selection on five traits important for pollinator attraction (flowering start, plant height, flower number, flower size) and pollination efficiency (spur length) in natural populations of 12 orchid species. Pollinator-mediated selection was quantified by subtracting estimates of selection gradients for plants receiving supplemental hand-pollination from estimates obtained for open-pollinated control plants. Mean pollen limitation ranged from zero to 0.96. Opportunity for selection, pollinatormediated selection and net selection were all positively related to pollen limitation, whereas nonpollinator-mediated selection was not. Opportunity for selection varied five-fold, strength of pollinator-mediated selection varied three-fold and net selection varied 1.5-fold among species. Supplemental hand-pollination reduced both opportunity for selection and selection on floral traits. The results show that the intensity of biotic interactions is an important determinant of the selection regime, and indicate that the potential for pollinator-mediated selection and divergence in floral traits is particularly high in species that are strongly pollen-limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 214, no 3, p. 1381-1389
Keyword [en]
biotic interactions, natural selection, opportunity for selection, Orchidaceae, pollen limitation, pollinator-mediated selection
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-326362DOI: 10.1111/nph.14479ISI: 000402403900041PubMedID: 28240377OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-326362DiVA, id: diva2:1121333
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-07-10 Created: 2017-07-10 Last updated: 2018-04-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Pollinator-mediated selection and the evolution of floral traits in orchids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pollinator-mediated selection and the evolution of floral traits in orchids
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, I combined manipulations of traits and pollination environment with analysis of phenotypic selection to examine causes of variation in strength and mode of selection on floral traits, and I conducted a reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation in germination success. I tested the following predictions (1) the opportunity for selection, and the strength of pollinator-mediated and net selection increase with increasing pollen limitation, (2) the effects of traits affecting pollinator attraction and traits affecting pollination efficiency are non-additive and this leads to pollinator-mediated correlational selection, (3) the effects of spur length on pollen removal, pollen receipt, and female fitness differ between populations with short-tongued and populations with long-tongued pollinators, and (4) local adaptation at the stage of germination contributes to the maintenance of ecotypes growing in grasslands and woodlands, respectively.

A study including natural populations of 12 orchid species that varied widely in pollen limitation showed that opportunity for selection, pollinator-mediated selection and net selection were all positively related to pollen limitation, whereas non-pollinator-mediated selection was not. In the moth-pollinated orchid Platanthera bifolia, experimental reductions of plant height and spur length decreased pollen removal, pollen receipt and fruit production, but non-additive effects were not detected. Effects of plant height translated into pollinator-mediated selection for taller plants via female fitness, but there was no current pollinator-mediated selection on spur length. An experiment using artificial nectar spurs demonstrated that in P. bifolia pollen receipt saturated at shorter spur length in a population with short-tongued pollinators than in a population with a long-tongued pollinator. Effects of spur length on pollen receipt did not translate into current pollinator-mediated selection indicating that also plants with the shortest spurs for the most part received sufficient pollen for full seed set. Reciprocal sowing of seeds from grassland and woodland populations detected no evidence of local adaptation at the germination stage between ecotypes of P. bifolia.

Taken together, the results illustrate how a combination of trait manipulation and analysis of strength and causes of selection can throw light on both the functional and adaptive significance of trait variation within and among natural populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 43
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1677
Keyword
Among-population variation, Ecotype, Field experiment, Floral evolution, Germination, Local adaptation, Orchidaceae, Platanthera bifolia, Phenotypic selection, Pollination, Reciprocal transplant, Trait manipulation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-349139 (URN)978-91-513-0352-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-14, Zootissalen, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-05-24

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Trunschke, JudithSletvold, NinaÅgren, Jon

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