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Comparison of a 21-item food questionnaire with a 7-day dietary registration andbiomarkers of fat intake in a Swedish cohort of 60-year-old adults.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. (Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3435-1928
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. (Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism)
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet . (Cardiovascular epidemiology)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1404-9222
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. (Clinical nutrition and metabolism)
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Purpose. To evaluate a 21-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in men participating in a

large cohort of Swedish 60-year-old adults (60YO).

Methods. A self-reported FFQ (including 21 qualitative and semi-quantitative questions) was completed by >2000 men as part of a detailed baseline examination. A subsample of 301 men was included in a subsequent study in which detailed dietary habits were determined by a 7-day food record. Spearman rank correlations (r) and weighted Kappa (Kw) statistics were used to compare food intake categories in FFQ and 7-day food record. Furthermore, fatty acid (FA) composition in serum cholesteryl esters, assessed concurrent with the FFQ completion, was used to evaluate intakes of specific fat-rich foods from the FFQ.

Results. We found good agreement between FFQ and food records for the reported intake of

alcohol (r=0.72, Kw=0.51), margarine (r=0.60, Kw=0.33), and fruit (r=0.49, Kw=0.31), reasonably good agreement for total fish (r=0.25, Kw=0.23), and egg (r=0.35, Kw=0.28), but poor agreement for other food groups such as bread, cheese, vegetables and cookies. In addition, serum proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and pentadecanoic acid were significantly higher in men with greater intakes of fish and cheese, respectively.

Conclusion. In this evaluation of a short FFQ against 7-d food records and serum biomarkers of fat intake we found that the FFQ reasonably well reflected the intake of certain food groups (e.g. alcohol, fish, and margarine), but performed less accurate for other food groups. Firm and overall

conclusions on validity are confined by the time-lag between the test and the reference method.

Keywords [en]
validation, food frequency questionnaire, biomarkers of fat intake
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327199OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-327199DiVA, id: diva2:1129772
Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2017-08-08
In thesis
1. Dietary Intake, Fatty Acid Biomarkers, and Abdominal Obesity: Population-Based Observational Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Intake, Fatty Acid Biomarkers, and Abdominal Obesity: Population-Based Observational Studies
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the associations between fatty acid (FA) biomarkers, carbohydrate intake, and abdominal obesity (AO) and related anthropometric measures in a population-based cohort of men and women in Stockholm County. The overall hypothesis was that dietary fat quality assessed by serum and adipose tissue FA composition, and dietary intake of especially carbohydrates is associated with AO. FA composition was assessed by liquid gas chromatography, and AO was measured as waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Dietary intake was assessed by 7-day food records.

Papers I, II, III, and IV were all observational studies based on a Swedish population in Stockholm County (n=5460). A sub-cohort of only men (n=301) was included in Papers II, III, and IV.

In Paper I, serum proportions of the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) (18:2n6), was inversely associated with AO in both men and women, whereas a positive association was observed between the saturated FA (SFA), palmitic acid (PA) (16:0) and AO measures. These findings support recent interventional studies suggesting that a higher relative intake of PUFA (LA) from vegetable oils as compared with 16:0 is associated with decreased abdominal adiposity.

In Paper II, we investigated whether biomarkers of dietary fat quality were related to the corresponding FA intake from fat-rich foods reported in a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Serum proportions of the long-chain n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) were higher among men with higher total fish intake. Serum LA was higher among men who reported a consumption of more than 5 g/d of margarine. Absolute agreement between intakes assessed with FFQ of 60YO and 7-day food record of "Kost och Metabola syndromet"/"Diet and the Metabolic syndrome" (KOMET) was highest for alcohol, total fish, and eggs. Weighted Kappa statistics revealed the strongest agreement for alcohol, margarine, and fruits.

In Paper III, carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with 16:0 in serum phospholipids (PL). Disaccharide and alcohol intake was positively and non-linearly associated with palmitoleic acid (16:1) and stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD) activity in PL. Alcohol was consistently associated with higher SFA and monounsaturated FA (MUFA).

Results of Paper IV indicated that total carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with measures of AO and central fat distribution, WHR and SAD, respectively. Likewise, monosaccharide intake was associated with lower AO. In contrast, alcohol intake was associated with AO prevalence and all anthropometric measurements.

In conclusion, serum SFA (palmitic acid) was positively associated with AO, whereas n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) was associated with lower AO. High intake of total carbohydrate and monosaccharides were associated with lower AO. Overall, these results support a beneficial role on adiposity of diets that are higher in polyunsaturated fat (vegetable oils) and total carbohydrates compared with saturated fat.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. p. 47
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1349
Keywords
abdominal obesity, fatty acid biomarker, dietary intake
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327278 (URN)978-91-513-0024-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-25, Rudbeck conference, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 20, 752 37 Uppsala, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-08-08 Last updated: 2017-09-08

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