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Highly translucent and strong ZrO2-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass ceramicprepared by sol-gel method and spark plasma sintering with fine 3Dmicrostructure for dental restoration
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. (Material in Medicine)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Uppsala university. (Material in Medicine)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9529-650X
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. (Material in Medicine)
2017 (English)In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 37, p. 4067-4081Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Balance of better mechanical strength and good translucency for dental restorative materials is alwaysa challenge. A translucent glass ceramic/ceramic with improved mechanical properties or a strongglass ceramic/ceramic with good translucency would therefore be interesting for dental application.Nanocrystalline glass ceramics (NCGC) attract a lot attention because of their superior optical andmechanical properties. This study aims to obtain ZrO2-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass-ceramic that possesseshigh mechanical strength as well as excellent translucency by controlling the content, size, and connectionof nanocrystalline ZrO2 in a ZrO2-SiO2 glass-ceramic material. Toward this end, well-homogenized nano-powders with three different compositions, 45%ZrO2-55%SiO2 (molar ratio, 45Zr), 55%ZrO2-45%SiO2(55Zr), and 65%ZrO2-35%SiO2 (65Zr), were synthesized, followed by a fast sintering process. Highly-translucent nanocrystalline glass ceramics composed of tetragonal ZrO2 were obtained. Samples withhigh zirconia content showed that the structure of the skeleton was predominately built by nano-sizedellipsoidal ZrO2 particles bonded by grain boundaries, with amorphous SiO2 filling the voids betweenthe ZrO2 particles. The achieved flexural strength measured by piston-on-three-ball test was as high as1014 MPa. To our knowledge, this is one of the highest flexural strength values of glass ceramics everreported, which is higher than transparent zirconia and alumina ceramics. The 3D structure of nanocrys-talline zirconia in silica matrix did enhance the flexural strength of the NCGC. The results of this studysuggest that the new ZrO2-SiO2 NCGC has great potential of using as dental restoration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 37, p. 4067-4081
Keywords [en]
Nanocrystalline glass ceramics, ZrO2-SiO2, Translucency, High strength, 3D microstructure
National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330141DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.05.039OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-330141DiVA, id: diva2:1144578
Funder
Carl Tryggers foundation Available from: 2017-09-26 Created: 2017-09-26 Last updated: 2018-08-12
In thesis
1. Spark plasma sintered ZrO2-SiO2 glass ceramics and Si3N4 bioceramics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spark plasma sintered ZrO2-SiO2 glass ceramics and Si3N4 bioceramics
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focuses on elaboration and characterization of two types of bioceramics: one is ZrO2-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass ceramic (NCGC) for dental application. The goal is to develop new ZrO2-SiO2 NCGCs with a combination of high strength and high translucency; the other is biodegradable Si3N4 ceramics for spinal fusion. This project aims to improve the osteointergration property of Si3N4 ceramics. Translucent glass ceramics typically suffer from impaired mechanical properties, compared to full-ceramics. We presented a method of obtaining ZrO2-SiO2 NCGCs, with a microstructure of monocrystalline ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix. Raw powders containing different ZrO2 contents were prepared by the sol-gel method, followed by the spark plasma sintering (SPS). The NCGC with a composition of 35%ZrO2-65%SiO2 (molar ratio, 35Zr) was transparent. Tetragonal ZrO2 NPs were spherical with a diameter of 20–40 nm. The average flexural strength of 35Zr NCGC was 234 MPa. To improve the flexural strength, NCGCs with compositions of 45%ZrO2-55%SiO2 (45Zr), 55%ZrO2-45%SiO2 (55Zr), 65%ZrO2-35%SiO2 (65Zr) were also elaborated. All NCGCs showed high translucency. The flexural strength of the NCGCs significantly increased with the increase of ZrO2 content, achieving as high as 1014 MPa for 65Zr NCGC.  ZrO2 NPs in 65Zr NCGC were ellipsoidal and had a core-shell structure with a thin Zr/Si interfacial layer as the shell. Some of the ZrO2 NPs were connected and formed ZrOnanofibers. Moreover, the ZrOnanofibers were orderly stacked in short-range to form the 3D nano-architecture. The high flexural strength of the 65Zr NCGC mainly originates from synergistic strengthening effects of the thin Zr/Si interfacial layer and 3D stacked nano-architecture. Regarding biodegradable Si3N4 bioceramics, we used a ternary sintering additive of SrO, MgO and SiO2.   The mechanical properties of the developed Si3N4 bioceramics were comparable to those of traditional Si3N4 ceramics. Sr2+, Mg2+, and Si4+ ions released from the intergranular glass phase after immersion in solution, indicating that the developed Si3N4 bioceramics showed certain biodegradable ability. These ions enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblasts. Meanwhile, the ionic dissolution products did not show any toxic effects to the development or physiology of zebrafish embryos.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 70
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1710
Keywords
ZrO2-SiO2 glass ceramic, high-strength, translucency, 3D nano-architecture, Si3N4 bioceramic, biodegradable, spark plasma sintering
National Category
Ceramics
Research subject
Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357128 (URN)978-91-513-0419-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-10-10, Häggsalen, 10132, Ångström, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Carl Tryggers foundation
Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-08-12 Last updated: 2018-10-02

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