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Psychometric evaluation of the canine brief pain inventory in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to osteoarthritis
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy. Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Husb, Dept Clin Sci, Box 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
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2017 (English)In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 59, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: To evaluate intervention, implement evidence-based practice and enhance the welfare of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA), access to valid, reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is crucial for researchers, veterinarians and rehabilitation practitioners. The objectives of the present study were to translate and evaluate psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency and construct validity, of the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to OA. Results: Twenty-one owners of clinically sound dogs and 58 owners of dogs with pain related to OA were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. After being translated according to the guidelines for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI was completed by the canine owners. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between clinically sound dogs and dogs with pain related to OA. Internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's a. Confirmatory factor analysis was not able to confirm the factor-structure models tested in our sample. Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure, pain severity and pain interference of function. Two components accounted for 76.8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. The ratings from the clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI total sum. Cronbach's a was 0.94 for the total CBPI, 0.91 for the pain severity and 0.91 for the pain interference of function. Conclusions: The results indicate that the translated version of the CBPI is valid for use in the Swedish language. The findings suggest satisfying psychometric properties in terms of high internal consistencies and ability to discriminate clinically sound dogs from OA dogs. However, based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the original factor structure in the CBPI is not ideally suited to measure pain related to OA in our sample and the hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure was rejected. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether the original psychometric results from CBPI can be replicated across different target groups and particularly with larger sample size.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 59, article id 44
Keyword [en]
CBPI, Dogs, Measurement properties, Osteoarthritis, Pain, Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation
National Category
Veterinary Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330036DOI: 10.1186/s13028-017-0311-2ISI: 000404805500001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-330036DiVA, id: diva2:1145548
Available from: 2017-09-29 Created: 2017-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05
In thesis
1. On assessment methods related to pain in dogs with osteoarthritis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On assessment methods related to pain in dogs with osteoarthritis
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is a need of valid and reliable assessment methods that are clinically applicable in canine rehabilitation practice. The aim of this thesis was to psychometrically evaluate measurement properties in assessment methods related to pain in naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis. Assessment methods developed for heart rate variability analysis, i.e. Polar heart rate monitor, and owner-reported perceptions of pain severity and pain interference with functionality, i.e. Canine Brief Pain Inventory, were tested.

Methods: Four observational studies were conducted. Study I was a cross-sectional study consisting of two groups of consecutively recruited dogs. The Canine Brief Pain Inventory was administered to owners of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (n=61) and clinically sound dogs (n=21). Study II was a descriptive and correlative cross-sectional study based on the same sample of dogs with osteoarthritis (n=71), assessing chronic pain behavior and associations between explanatory variables and chronic pain behavior. Study III and IV were correlative studies, assessing Polar heart rate monitor measuring interbeat intervals and time- and frequency-based heart rate variability parameters, compared to simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram in dogs (n=11).

Results: High internal consistencies and ability to discriminate sound dogs from osteoarthritis dogs were found. The hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory was rejected. Owners reported higher proportions of chronic pain behavior in items targeting physical activities, e.g. getting up, moving after rest and moving after major exercise. A minor proportion of dogs with osteoarthritis showed no owner-perceived behavioural signs of chronic pain. Owner observations were not associated with ongoing antiinflammatory medications. In Study III and IV, 595 errors (12.3%) were identified in Polar data. The number of errors were unequally distributed among the dogs. Interbeat intervals and heart rate variability parameters from electrocardiogram and Polar were strongly associated. Standard error of measurements were high among some heart rate variability parameters in Polar and electrocardiogram.

In conclusion, this thesis contributes to our knowledge about assessment methods related to diverse components of pain in dogs with osteoarthritis, allowing improved pain management in clinical practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 70
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1415
Keyword
assessment methods, behavior, canine, chronic pain, heart rate variability, measurement properties, osteoarthritis, physiotherapy, rehabilitation
National Category
Physiotherapy Veterinary Science
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334679 (URN)978-91-513-0199-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-02-16, Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3,753 10 Uppsala, Uppsala, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-01-26 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-03-07

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Essner, AnnZetterberg, LenaHellström, Karin

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