uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Depth profiling the solid electrolyte interphase on lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) using synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
2015 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 294, 173-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence of a surface layer on lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12, LTO) anodes, which has been a topic of debate in scientific literature, is here investigated with tunable high surface sensitive synchrotron-basedphotoelectron spectroscopy (PES) to obtain a reliable depth profile of the interphase. LijjLTO cells with electrolytes consisting of 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate (LiPF6 in EC:DEC) were cycled in two different voltage windows of 1.0e2.0 V and 1.4e2.0 V. LTO electrodes were characterized after 5 and 100 cycles. Also the pristine electrode as such, and an electrode soaked in the electrolyte were analyzed by varying the photon energies enabling depth profiling of the outermost surface layer. The main components of the surface layer were found to be ethers, PeO containing compounds, and lithium fluoride.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 294, 173-179 p.
Keyword [en]
Li-ion batteries, LTO, PES, XPS, Surface layer, SEI
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331106DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.06.038OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-331106DiVA: diva2:1148392
Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-10-10 Last updated: 2017-10-13
In thesis
1. A Quest for the Unseen: Surface Layer Formation on Li4Ti5O12 Li-Ion Battery Anodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Quest for the Unseen: Surface Layer Formation on Li4Ti5O12 Li-Ion Battery Anodes
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The electric vehicle itself today outlives its battery, necessitating battery replacement. Lithium titanium oxide (LTO) has, in this context, been suggested as a new anode material in heavy electric vehicle applications due to intrinsic properties regarding safety, lifetime and availability.

The work presented here is focused on the LTO electrode/electrolyte interface. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) has been applied to determine how and if the usage of LTO could prevent extensive anode-side electrolyte decomposition and build-up of a surface layer. The presence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) comprising LiF, carbonates and ether compounds was found in half-cells utilizing a standard ethylene:diethylcarbonate electrolyte with 1 M LiPF6. Via testing of symmetrical LTO-LTO cells, the stability of the formed SEI was put in to question. Moreover, the traditional polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF) binder was replaced by more environmentally benign carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyacrilic acid (PAA) binders in LTO electrodes, and it was found that CMC helped to form a more stable surface-layer that proved beneficial for long term cycling.

Following the half-cell studies, full-cells were investigated to observe how different cathodes influence the SEI of LTO. The SEI in full-cells displayed characteristics similar to the half-cells, however, when utilizing a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode, more electrolyte decomposition could be observed. Increasing the operational temperature of this battery cell generated even more degradation products on the LTO electrodes. Mn was also found on the anode when using Mn-based cathodes, however, it was found in its ionic state and did not significantly affect the composition or behavior of the observed SEI layer. Furthermore, by exchanging the electrolyte solvent for propylene carbonate, the thickness of the SEI increased, and by replacing the LiPF6 salt for LiBF4 the stability of the SEI improved. Thus is it demonstrated that such a passivation can be beneficial for the long-term surface stability of the electrode. These findings can therefore help prolong the lifetime of LTO-based battery chemistries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2017. 67 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1576
Keyword
SEI, LTO, XPS, PES, Surface Layer, Titanate
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331349 (URN)978-91-513-0105-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-01, Häggsalen, Ångström, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-10 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2017-11-10

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text
By organisation
Structural Chemistry
In the same journal
Journal of Power Sources
Materials Chemistry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Altmetric score

Total: 38 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf