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Multiple Vertical Axis Wind Turbines with Passive Rectification to a Common DC-link
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5467-4527
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4951-8831
2018 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 127, p. 1101-1110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wind turbines are commonly placed in wind farms, usually operating as separate units. Possible benefits could be found by allowing turbines to share a common DC-link. Diode rectifiers are a robust and cost effective way to rectify variable speed wind turbines, with loss of direct control of the generator. This paper studies the electromechanical interactions between four passively rectified vertical axis wind turbines connected to a common DC-link. Two different load approaches for the DC-link are compared using simulations in terms of performance and stability: a power source and a voltage source. The optimal torque (or optimal power) control is implemented for the two loads approaches. In addition, three-phase and dual stator winding (six-phase) generators are compared. The results show that all suggested solutions work with similar performance. However, the power load requires a large DC-link capacitance to achieve stability. More generatorphases improve the system with passive rectification in most cases. The simulations suggest that the common DC-link systems are expected to have a few percent lower energy capture due to the lack of individual turbine control. On the other hand, there is a significant reduction in peak power and a potential for smoother output power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 127, p. 1101-1110
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331784DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2018.05.013ISI: 000437077300099OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-331784DiVA, id: diva2:1150362
Available from: 2017-10-18 Created: 2017-10-18 Last updated: 2018-09-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Electromechanics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electromechanics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wind power is an established mean of clean energy production and the modern horizontal axis wind turbine has become a common sight. The need for maintenance is high and future wind turbines may need to be improved to enable more remote and offshore locations. Vertical axis wind turbines have possible benefits, such as higher reliability, less noise and lower centre of gravity. This thesis focuses on electromechanical interaction in the straight bladed Darrieus rotor (H-rotor) concept studied at Uppsala University.

One of the challenges with vertical axis technology is the oscillating aerodynamic forces. A force measurement setup has been implemented to capture the forces on a three-bladed 12 kW open site prototype. The normal force showed good agreement with simulations. An aerodynamic torque could be estimated from the system. The total electrical torque in the generator was determined from electrical measurements. Both torque estimations lacked the expected aerodynamic ripple at three times per revolution. The even torque detected is an important result and more studies are required to confirm and understand it.

The force measurement was also used to study the loads on the turbine in parked conditions. It was discovered that there is a strong dependence on wind direction and that there is a positive torque on the turbine at stand still. The results can assist to determine the best parking strategies for an H-rotor turbine.

The studied concept also features diode rectification of the voltage from the permanent magnet synchronous generator. Diodes are considered a cheap and robust solution for rectification at the drawback of inducing ripple in the torque and output voltage. The propagation of the torque ripple was measured on the prototype and studied with simulations and analytical expressions. One key conclusion was that the mechanical driveline of the turbine is an effective filter of the diode induced torque ripple.

A critical speed controller was implemented on the prototype. The controller was based on optimal torque control and according to the experiments and the simulations it was able to avoid a rotational speed span. Finally, the optimal torque control was evaluated for multiple turbines with diode rectification to a common DC-link. The setup can potentially reduce the overall complexity of wind farms. The simulations suggest that stability of the system can be obtained by controlling the DC-link load as a semi constant voltage.

The thesis is based on nine papers of which six are treated in the thesis summary.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. p. 81
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1581
Keywords
Wind power, Diode rectification, Control, Measurement, Simulation, Electromechanical coupling, vindkraft, diodlikriktning, reglering, mätning, simulering
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Energy Systems
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331844 (URN)978-91-513-0117-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-08, Å2005, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUpStandUp for Wind
Available from: 2017-11-14 Created: 2017-10-18 Last updated: 2018-03-07

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Rossander, MorganFjellstedt, ChristofferBernhoff, Hans

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