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A combined meta-barcoding and shotgun metagenomic analysis of spontaneous wine fermentation
Australian Wine Res Inst, POB 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.;Queensland Univ Technol, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, Woolloongabba, Qld, Australia..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. Australian Wine Res Inst, POB 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.
Australian Wine Res Inst, POB 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia..
Australian Wine Res Inst, POB 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.;Univ Adelaide, Dept Genet & Evolut, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia..
2017 (English)In: GigaScience, ISSN 2047-217X, E-ISSN 2047-217X, Vol. 6, no 7, 1-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Wine is a complex beverage, comprising hundreds of metabolites produced through the action of yeasts and bacteria in fermenting grape must. Commercially, there is now a growing trend away from using wine yeast (Saccharomyces) starter cultures, towards the historic practice of uninoculated or "wild" fermentation, where the yeasts and bacteria associated with the grapes and/or winery perform the fermentation. It is the varied metabolic contributions of these numerous non-Saccharomyces species that are thought to impart complexity and desirable taste and aroma attributes to wild ferments in comparison to their inoculated counterparts. Results To map the microflora of spontaneous fermentation, metagenomic techniques were employed to characterize and monitor the progression of fungal species in five different wild fermentations. Both amplicon-based ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer )ITS) phylotyping and shotgun metagenomics were used to assess community structure across different stages of fermentation. While providing a sensitive and highly accurate means of characterizing the wine microbiome, the shotgun metagenomic data also uncovered a significant over-abundance bias in the ITS phylotyping abundance estimations for the common non-Saccharomyces wine yeast genus Metschnikowia. Conclusions By identifying biases such as that observed for Metschnikowia, abundance mesurements from future ITS-phylotyping datasets can corrected to provide more accurate species representation. Ulitmtaely, as more shotgun metagenomic and single-strain de novo assemblies for key wine species become available, the accuracy of both ITS-amplicon and shotgun studies will greatly increase, providing a powerful methodology for deciphering the influence of the microbial community on the wine flavor and aroma.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS , 2017. Vol. 6, no 7, 1-30 p.
Keyword [en]
Wine, metagenomics, phylotyping, yeast diversity
National Category
Food Science Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331892DOI: 10.1093/gigascience/gix040ISI: 000405826000001PubMedID: 28595314OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-331892DiVA: diva2:1153048
Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved

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