uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Great Zimbabwe's iron:: Its technological materials and social space
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Uppsala University.
2018 (English)In: The World of Great Zimbabwe / [ed] Pikirayi, I., New York: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter uses results from varied archaeological surveys and excavations, radiocarbon dating, and ethnographic accounts by early European observers, supplemented by recent ethnographic enquiries around Great Zimbabwe, to illuminate three broad transformations in its iron technology and its organization. Around AD 900, agro-pastoral communities living in the area of Great Zimbabwe were already experimenting with natural draft smelting technology alongside bellows-driven furnaces. Household industry was the dominant organization of iron production among these communities. As Great Zimbabwe evolved into an important political, religious and trade between the 12th and 17th centuries AD, its iron smelting technologies varied and intensified. Specialists based most likely on kinship groups produced iron using sophisticated variations of natural draft technologies without totally replacing the existing forced draft technology. Part-time domestic iron production was most likely also present throughout this period. By the 19th century, iron producers were exploiting locally available woods and iron ores exclusively in bellows-driven furnaces, some with anthropomorphic features. By this time, the social organization of iron production was based on household production under the auspices of smaller kinship groups. The ongoing forging and casting of scrap metals driving rural and urban agriculture not just around Great Zimbabwe, but also in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa are vestiges of a long memory of metallurgical knowledge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2018.
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology; Archaeology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334798OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-334798DiVA: diva2:1160694
Projects
PhD tHESIS
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05
In thesis
1.
The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
2.
The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Mtetwa, Ezekia
By organisation
African and Comparative Archaeology
Archaeology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 67 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf