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"Like getting nibbled to death by a duck": Grammaticalization of the get-passive in the TIME Magazine Corpus
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7950-9998
2017 (English)In: English World-Wide, ISSN 0172-8865, E-ISSN 1569-9730, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 305-335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This large-scale corpus study explores new parameters which might indicate grammaticalization of the GET-passive in recent American English, where the construction has increased in frequency. To this end, large samples of both BE- and GET-passives from the TIME Magazine Corpus were analyzed with regard to tense, aspect, and situation type (Aktionsart). While tense and aspect preferences of the passives were diachronically stable, the results of the situation-type analysis were of interest for two reasons. First, they showed clear differences in the way GET-and BE-passives are used which reflect the GET-passive's inchoative origins. And second, the diachronic analysis of situation-type preferences for GET-passives provides a first indication that they may be further grammaticalizing as they begin to behave more like canonical BE-passives in the most recent data. This finding is tentatively supported by supplementary data from COHA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017. Vol. 38, no 3, p. 305-335
Keywords [en]
grammaticalization, situation type, American English, get-passive, be-passive
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335224DOI: 10.1075/eww.38.3.03schISI: 000423730000004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-335224DiVA, id: diva2:1161961
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Passive voices: be-, get- and prepositional passives in recent American English
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive voices: be-, get- and prepositional passives in recent American English
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the thesis is to shed light on the use and development of passive voice in American English. Empirical, corpus methods are employed in order to examine the syntactic, semantic, and stylistic preferences of three English passive constructions across time and genre in American English. The corpus data span the years 1870–2010 and come from genres of widely varying formality. The three passive constructions investigated in this thesis are:

  1. The canonical be-passive, as in she was sent home.
  2. The informal, relatively infrequent get-passive, as in she got sent home.
  3. The typologically rare prepositional passive, as in she was sent for.

In Article 1, the frequency of be- and get-passives in very recent, speech-like material suggests both colloquialization and prescriptivism as influences on the language. The results indicate little difference between the two passives except in terms of frequency, highlighting the importance of comparing get-passives to a control group of be-passives.  In Article 2, data from the TIME Magazine Corpus indicate that get-passives may have been continuing to grammaticalize over the 20th century in terms of situation-type preferences. Article 3, which encompasses a longer diachronic span across more genres, lends further support to the continuing grammaticalization of get-passives, and offers two additional indicators:  decreased use with human subjects, and increasing acceptability with a range of past participles. Finally, the study of prepositional passives presented in Article 4 constitutes an empirical investigation of earlier theories against a control group of non-prepositional passives. The findings suggest diachronically stable differences along a range of features, including the thematic roles conferred on the passive subject-referent, supporting earlier claims about affectedness and perceptual salience of subject in prepositional passives.

The overall findings of the thesis highlight differences and similarities in three kinds of passive, and nuance our understanding of what passive voice is by using empirical methods to refine intuitive theories. The results regarding the use and development of the passives across time period and genre offer insight into the intertwined nature of mechanisms relating to language change, such as prescriptivism, colloquialization, and grammaticalization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Department of English, 2018. p. 67
Keywords
passive voice, get-passive, prepositional passive, corpus linguistics, American English, historical syntax, adversativity, situation type, thematic role, affectedness, prescriptivism, colloquialization, grammaticalization
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Specific Languages
Research subject
English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342405 (URN)978-91-506-2682-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-20, Geijersalen, Engelska parken, Thunbergsvägen 3, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-02-21 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved

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Schwarz, Sarah

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