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Understanding the Rapid Capacity Fading of LNMO-LTO Lithium-ion Cells at Elevated Temperature
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0366-7228
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) has an average operating potential around 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+ and a gravimetric charge capacity of 146 mAh/g making it a promising high energy density positive electrode for Li-ion batteries. Additionally, the 3-D lithium transport paths available in the spinel structure enables fast diffusion kinetics, making it suitable for power applications [1]. However, the material displays large instability during cycling, especially at elevated temperatures. Therefore, significant research efforts have been undertaken to better understand and improve this electrode material.

Electrolyte (LiPF6 in organic solvents) oxidation and transition metal dissolution are often considered as the main problems [2] for the systems based on this cathode material. These can cause a variety of problems (in different parts of the cell) eventually increasing internal cell resistance, causing active mass loss and decreasing the amount of cyclable lithium.

Among these issues, cyclable lithium loss cannot be observed in half cells since lithium metal will provide almost unlimited capacity. Being a promising full cell chemistry for high power applications, there has also been a considerable interest on LNMO full cells with Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) used as the negative electrode. For this chemistry, for an optimized cell, quite stable cycling for >1000 cycles has been reported at room temperature while fast fading is still present at 55 °C [3]. This difference in performance (RT vs. 55 °C) is beyond most expectations and likely does not follow any Arrhenius-type of trend.

In this study, a comprehensive analysis of LNMO-LTO cells has been performed at different temperatures (RT, 40 °C and 55 °C) to understand the underlying reasons behind stable cycling at room temperature and rapid fading at 55 °C. For this purpose, testing was made on regular cells (Figure 1a), 3-electrode cells (Figure 1b) and back-to-back cells [4] (Figure 1c). Electrode interactions (cross-talk) have been shown to exist in the LTO-LNMO system [5] and back-to-back cells have therefore been used to observe fading under conditions where cross-talk is impossible [4]. Galvanostatic cycling combined with short-duration intermittent current interruptions [6] was performed in order to separately observe changes in internal resistance for LNMO and LTO electrodes in a full cell. Ex-situ characterization of electrodes have also been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES).

Our findings show how important the electrode interactions can be in full cells, as a decrease in lithium inventory was shown to be the major factor for the observed capacity fading at elevated temperature. In this presentation, the effect of other factors – active mass loss and internal cell resistance – will be discussed together with the consequences of cross-talk.

References

[1] A. Kraytsberg et al. Adv. Energy Mater., vol. 2, pp. 922–939,2012.

[2] J. H. Kim et al., ChemPhysChem, vol. 15, pp. 1940–1954, 2014.

[3] H. M. Wu et al. J. E. Soc., vol. 156, pp. A1047–A1050, 2009.

[4] S. R. Li et al., J. E. Soc., vol. 160, no. 9, pp. A1524–A1528, 2013.

[5] Dedryvère et al. J. Phys. C., vol. 114 (24), pp. 10999–11008, 2010.

[6] M. J. Lacey, ChemElectroChem, pp. 1–9, 2017.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017.
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337964OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-337964DiVA, id: diva2:1171203
Conference
2nd International Symposium on Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion, September 26-28, 2017, Ortahisar, Turkey
Available from: 2018-01-06 Created: 2018-01-06 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved

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Aktekin, BurakLacey, MatthewNordh, TimTengstedt, CarlBrandell, DanielEdström, Kristina

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