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Atomic Layer Deposition of Electron Selective SnOx and ZnO Films on Mixed Halide Perovskite: Compatibility and Performance
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2402-5427
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Sharif Univ Technol, Tehran, Iran.
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2017 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 35, p. 29707-29716Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The compatibility of atomic layer deposition directly onto the mixed halide perovskite formamidinium lead iodide:methylammonium lead bromide (CH(NH2)(2), CH3NH3)Pb(I,Br)(3) (FAPbI(3):MAPbBr(3)) perovskite films is investigated by exposing the perovskite films to the full or partial atomic layer deposition processes for the electron selective layer candidates ZnO and SnOx. Exposing the samples to the heat, the vacuum, and even the counter reactant of H2O of the atomic layer deposition processes does not appear to alter the perovskite films in terms of crystallinity, but the choice of metal precursor is found to be critical. The Zn precursor Zn(C2H5)(2) either by itself or in combination with H2O during the ZnO atomic layer deposition (ALD) process is found to enhance the decomposition of the bulk of the perovskite film into PbI2 without even forming ZnO. In contrast, the Sn precursor Sn(N(CH3)(2))(4) does not seem to degrade the bulk of the perovskite film, and conformal SnOx films can successfully be grown on top of it using atomic layer deposition. Using this SnOx film as the electron selective layer in inverted perovskite solar cells results in a lower power conversion efficiency of 3.4% than the 8.4% for the reference devices using phenyl-C-70-butyric acid methyl ester. However, the devices with SnOx show strong hysteresis and can be pushed to an efficiency of 7.8% after biasing treatments. Still, these cells lacks both open circuit voltage and fill factor compared to the references, especially when thicker SnOx films are used. Upon further investigation, a possible cause of these losses could be that the perovskite/SnOx interface is not ideal and more specifically found to be rich in Sn, O, and halides, which is probably a result of the nucleation during the SnOx growth and which might introduce barriers or alter the band alignment for the transport of charge carriers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 9, no 35, p. 29707-29716
Keywords [en]
perovskite solar cell, atomic layer deposition, interfaces, electron selective layers, precursor chemistry
National Category
Materials Chemistry Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335852DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b07627ISI: 000410597500034PubMedID: 28792724OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-335852DiVA, id: diva2:1177703
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-02-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Preparation and Characterization of Lead Halide Perovskites: Towards sustainable, cost-effective and upscalable solar cell manufacture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparation and Characterization of Lead Halide Perovskites: Towards sustainable, cost-effective and upscalable solar cell manufacture
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The perovskite solar cell (PSC) is a recent contender within the photovoltaic research field. In a matter of a few years, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC has catapulted from 4% to above 22%, which represents one of the fastest developments in the field. The PSC band-gap tunability makes them interesting for use in tandem solar cells with other established solar cell technologies. This thesis focuses on exploring the photophysics of the perovskite material as well as the development of different perovskite preparation processes and materials for potential use in large-scale manufacture and tandem solar cell applications.

First, the photoconductivity of a perovskite film deposited on different metal oxide nanoparticle layers is investigated. The results show that the perovskite can generate free charge carriers without the presence of an electron acceptor.

Secondly, we constructed PSCs with a conducting carbon-nanotube film, as a replacement for both the hole-selective layer and the metallic back electrode, which yielded a PCE of 15.5%. Furthermore, we explored the preparation of semitransparent PSCs for tandem solar cells by using atomic-layer deposition (ALD) for depositing a thin electron-selective metal-oxide layer. We were successful using ALD directly on a perovskite layer without damage to the perovskite. Although the PSCs did not yield high PCE, the study marks a step in further development for direct ALD deposition onto the perovskite.

Finally, we developed two different methods concerning sustainable manufacture of PSCs. The first method was based on the synthesis of the mixed-ion (FAPbI3)0.87(MAPbBr3)0.17 perovskite in ambient air, which had hitherto only been possible in inert atmosphere. The best PSC was obtained by depositing the perovskite onto a 50°C warm substrate in ambient air yielding a PCE of 17.7%. In the second method, only non-hazardous solvents, water and isopropanol, were used in the synthesis of Cs0.1FA0.9Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3. It is the first publication of mixed inorganic and organic cation perovskite synthesis using a two-step preparation procedure with only non-hazardous solvents and the process yielded a PCE of 13.0%. The method allows for complete ionic control of the perovskite and further variation and improvements are therefore possible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 83
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1628
Keywords
perovskite solar cells, perovskite, photoconductivity, carbon nanotubes, transparent contact, ambient processing, water-based
National Category
Physical Chemistry Energy Systems Nano Technology
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340508 (URN)978-91-513-0229-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-23, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2018-02-27 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-04-03

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Hultqvist, AdamAitola, KerttuSveinbjörnsson, KáriSaki, ZahraLarsson, FredrikTörndahl, TobiasJohansson, ErikBoschloo, GerritEdoff, Marika

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Hultqvist, AdamAitola, KerttuSveinbjörnsson, KáriSaki, ZahraLarsson, FredrikTörndahl, TobiasJohansson, ErikBoschloo, GerritEdoff, Marika
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