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Characterization of Swedish Campylobacter coli clade 2 and clade 3 water isolates
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8403-1530
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2111-9751
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2018 (English)In: MicrobiologyOpen, ISSN 2045-8827, E-ISSN 2045-8827, Vol. 7, no 4, article id e00583Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are important bacterial enteropathogens. Poultry is the best-known reservoir for Campylobacter infection but natural bodies of water have also been shown to be important pathways for transmission. Campylobacter can survive in cold water but most of the studies have focused on C. jejuni only. In this paper, we take a closer look at the biology and water survival strategies of C. coil. Eight C. coil isolates cultivated from raw (incoming) surface water at water plants in Sweden were characterized using whole-genome sequencing and phenotypical assays. Phylogenetic analysis assigned the Swedish water isolates to clades 2 and 3, known to include C. coil of environmental origin. In addition, 53 earlier published sequences of C. coil clade 2 and 3 from environmental waters were included for in silico analyses. Generally, clade 2 isolates had larger genomes, which included a functional tricarballylate utilization locus, while clade 3 isolates contained different genes involved in oxidative stress as well as putative virulence factors. The Swedish water isolates of clade 2 formed large, blurry bacterial colonies on agar, whereas clade 3 colonies were smaller. All Swedish isolates were motile, but clade 3 isolates formed larger motility zones on soft agar, and none of these isolates produced biofilm. Although water survival varied between the analyzed isolates, there were hardly any clade-specific significant differences. Our results highlight the diversity of C. coil in general, and show differences in metabolic capabilities and ways to handle oxidative stress between clade 2 and 3 water isolates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 7, no 4, article id e00583
Keywords [en]
Campylobacter coli, phenotypic identification, waterborne pathogens, whole-genome sequencing
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332076DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.583ISI: 000440928500006PubMedID: 29424055OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-332076DiVA, id: diva2:1178714
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 221- 2012-1442Swedish Research Council, 521-2011-3527Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli water isolates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli water isolates
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are together the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the European Union. Campylobacter can be transmitted to humans via contaminated water, but it is largely unknown how these bacteria survive in water.

The aim of this thesis was to better understand the water survival strategies and pathogenic potential of Campylobacter water isolates. For this purpose, C. jejuni and C. coli, originally isolated from incoming water at surface water plants, were characterized using whole genome sequencing, phenotypical assays, water survival experiments and an in vitro infection model.

C. jejuni water isolates included both common and uncommon sequence types for human pathogens, whereas C. coli isolates were assigned to clades 2 and 3, associated with environmental sources. For C. jejuni, comparative genomics revealed genes involved in oxidative and aerobic stress response. In C. coli, various carbon metabolism-related sequences were identified in clade 2 isolates and in clade 3 isolates, oxidative stress and putative virulence genes were detected. All water isolates were motile and the majority of C. jejuni isolates, but none of C. coli isolates, were able to form biofilm. C. jejuni survived better than C. coli in untreated well and lake water. Furthermore, in contrast to C. coli, a seasonal difference in survival was observed for C. jejuni with better survival in lake water collected during autumn than in spring. When tested in an in vitro infection model, all water isolates adhered to and induced IL-8 response in HT-29 cells indicating pathogenic potential. However, C. coli clade 3 isolates demonstrated a strong cytotoxic effect on human HT-29 cells leading to rapid cell death. This novel phenomenon was not observed for C. coli clade 2 or C. jejuni isolates.

This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study on Campylobacter water isolates characterized using genomic, phenotypical and in vitro infection analyses. These findings suggest that some Campylobacter isolates might survive better than others in water and water survival patterns shown here help us further understand the seasonality and predominance of water-related C. jejuni infections.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 64
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1427
Keywords
C. jejuni, C. coli, C.coli clade 2, C. coli clade 3, waterborne pathogens, whole genome sequencing, water survival, pathogenic potential, phenotypical identification
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area Microbiology
Research subject
Clinical Bacteriology; Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339839 (URN)978-91-513-0232-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-23, Hörsalen, Klinisk Mikrobiologi, Dag Hammarskjöldsväg 17, Ing D1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 221-2012-1442
Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-02-01 Last updated: 2018-04-03

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Nilsson, AnnaSkarp, AstridJohansson, CeciliaKaden, ReneEngstrand, LarsRautelin, Hilpi

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