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New insights on cultural dualism and population structure in the MiddleNeolithic Funnel Beaker culture on the island of Gotland
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4714-088x
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0201-6204
Natural Environment Research Council, Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK.
Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 17, p. 325-334Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years it has been shown that the Neolithization of Europe was partly driven by migration of farming groups admixing with local hunter-gatherer groups as they dispersed across the continent. However, little research has been done on the cultural duality of contemporaneous foragers and farming populations in the same region. Here we investigate the demographic history of the Funnel Beaker culture [Trichterbecherkultur or TRB, c. 4000–2800 cal BCE], and the sub-Neolithic Pitted Ware culture complex [PWC, c. 3300–2300 cal BCE] during the Nordic Middle Neolithic period on the island of Gotland, Sweden. We use a multidisciplinary approach to investigate individuals buried in the Ansarve dolmen, the only confirmed TRB burial on the island. We present new radiocarbon dating, isotopic analyses for diet and mobility, and mitochondrial DNA haplogroup data to infer maternal inheritance. We also present a new Sr-baseline of 0.71208 ± 0.0016 for the local isotope variation. We compare and discuss our findings together with that of contemporaneous populations in Sweden and the North European mainland.

The radiocarbon dating and Strontium isotopic ratios show that the dolmen was used between c. 3300–2700 cal BCE by a population which displayed local Sr-signals. Mitochondrial data show that the individuals buried in the Ansarve dolmen had maternal genetic affinity to that of other Early and Middle Neolithic farming cultures in Europe, distinct from that of the contemporaneous PWC on the island. Furthermore, they exhibited a strict terrestrial and/or slightly varied diet in contrast to the strict marine diet of the PWC. The findings indicate that two different contemporary groups coexisted on the same island for several hundred years with separate cultural identity, lifestyles, as well as dietary patterns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 17, p. 325-334
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Molecular Genetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343835DOI: 10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.09.002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-343835DiVA, id: diva2:1186908
Funder
Berit Wallenberg FoundationGunvor och Josef Anérs stiftelseHelge Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse Riksbankens JubileumsfondAvailable from: 2018-03-01 Created: 2018-03-01 Last updated: 2018-07-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. People of the Dolmens and Stone Cists: An archaeogenetic Investigation of Megalithic Graves from the Neolithic Period on Gotland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>People of the Dolmens and Stone Cists: An archaeogenetic Investigation of Megalithic Graves from the Neolithic Period on Gotland
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The study of ancient genomics of pre-historic human remains has in recent years offered unprecedented knowledge regarding pre-historic migration and population structure on the European continent which has fundamentally altered the current views in the archaeological community. However, the merging of the two fields, archaeology and genetics, is still in its infancy and much work is still needed in order for these fields to integrate. In this thesis I explore how genetic analyses, in combination with contextual radiocarbon dating and isotopic analyses for diet and mobility can be used to investigate demographic events on a local and regional level. This is done through the investigation of people buried in five previously excavated megalithic tombs on the Island of Gotland dated to the Neolithic period. I present the genomic population structure and archaeological background for the pre-historic European reference data and show how this is used to investigate population continuity, demographic shifts, cultural duality, and admixture for local and regional contexts. I present new data and explore the Strontium-baseline for the Gotland biosphere which is used for the mobility analyses. I show that mitochondrial haplogroup data is especially useful in combination with isotopic data, and radiocarbon dating for investigation of demographic shifts on a larger scale. I also show that genomic data gives unique insights into the individuals’ life history which, together with the established demographic background allows for fine scale investigation of population demographic events within and between different archaeological contexts. Finally I show that the different Neolithic contexts on Gotland to a large extent involves immigration of new groups to the island, and that the contextual breaks seen in the archaeological record during the Neolithic period are connected with cultural and population demographic shifts. This dissertation demonstrates that genomic analyses, in combination with archaeology and isotopic analyses, as well as contextual osteological analyses and radiocarbon dating, present unique insights into the life history of the actual people who lived the lives we try to understand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, 2018. p. 83
Series
Aun, ISSN 0284-1347 ; 47
Keywords
archaeology, aDNA, ancient genomics, archaeogenetics, mtDNA, osteology, radiocarbon dating, Strontium, Carbon, Nitrogen, TRB, PWC, BAC, CWC, dolmen, stone cist, population demography, diet, mobility, cultural duality, admixture, kinship, Neolithic period, Early Bronze Age, Europe, Baltic Sea area, Scandinavia, Gotland
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Molecular Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347559 (URN)978-91-506-2692-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-22, Geijersalen, Engelska parken, Thunbergsv. 3P, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
The ATLAS of Ancient Human Genomes project
Available from: 2018-04-26 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-04-26

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Fraser, MagdalenaSanchez-Quinto, FedericoWallin, PaulKnutsson, KjelJakobsson, Mattias

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