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Energy modeling approach to the global energy-mineral nexus: A first look at metal requirements and the 2 degrees C target
Tokyo Inst Technol, Midori Ku, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2268503, Japan.;Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci & Technol, 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058564, Japan..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Energy Sci, Sakyo Ku, Yoshida Honmachi, Kyoto 6068501, Japan..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0794-5536
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2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 207, p. 494-509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stringent GHG emission cuts are required for meeting the so-called Paris Agreement. Due to higher metal intensities of renewable energy, such a transition must also include required amounts of metal. This study estimates the metal requirement for various power generation technology mix scenarios by using a cost-minimizing energy model on the global energy-mineral nexus. Two energy and climate scenarios were developed to represent primarily economic efficiency and environmental performance, respectively, under climate policies with net zero emissions satisfying the 2 degrees C target, and without any constraints (i.e. Business As Usual). Based on the future additions of various power generation technologies, metal requirements and cumulative production were estimated in zero-order and conservative scenarios, to compare with production levels in 2015 and reserves. The results suggest that there may be cause for concern about metal requirement and/or availability in PV, nuclear, and (Plug-in Hybrid) Electric Vehicles in 2100. For PV in the Gas & Ren scenario, most of the metal usage exceeded their production levels and the reserves. It is concluded that mineral availability and production rates should be given greater attention for planning and modeling of sustainable energy systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 207, p. 494-509
Keywords [en]
Energy-mineral nexus, Energy modeling, 2 degrees C target, Zero emissions scenario, Metal requirement
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-344200DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.151ISI: 000417229300043OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-344200DiVA, id: diva2:1187744
Conference
8th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), OCT 08-11, 2016, Beijing Inst Technol, Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA
Available from: 2018-03-05 Created: 2018-03-05 Last updated: 2018-03-08Bibliographically approved

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Wachtmeister, HenrikDavidsson, SimonHöök, Mikael

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