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Survival and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in participants in a long-distance ski race (Vasaloppet, Sweden) compared to the background population
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Mora Hosp, Dept Internal Med, S-79285 Mora, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2146-7382
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2815-1217
Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, S-79188 Falun, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
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2018 (English)In: European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, ISSN 2058-5225, E-ISSN 2058-1742, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 91-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied the relationship between taking part in a long-distance ski race and incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) to address the hypothesis that lifestyle lowers the incidence. A cohort of 399 630 subjects in Sweden, half were skiers in the world's largest ski race, and half were non-skiers. Non-skiers were frequency matched for sex, age, and year of race. Individuals with severe diseases were excluded. The endpoints were death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The subjects were followed up for a maximum of 21.8 years and median of 9.8 years. We identified 9399 death, myocardial infarction, or stroke events among non-skiers and 4784 among the Vasaloppet skiers. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) comparing skiers and non-skiers were 0.52 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.54] for all-cause mortality, 0.56 (95% CI 0.52-0.60) for myocardial infarction and 0.63 (95% CI 0.58-0.67) for stroke and for all three outcomes 0.56 (95% CI 0.54-0.58). The results were consistent across subgroups: age, sex, family status, education, and race year. For skiers, a doubling of race time was associated with a higher age-adjusted risk of 19%, and male skiers had a doubled risk than female skiers, with a HR 2.06 (95% CI 1.89-2.41). The outcome analyses revealed no differences in risk of atrial fibrillation between skiers and non-skiers. This large cohort study provides additional support for the hypothesis that individuals with high level of physical activity representing a healthy lifestyle, as evident by their participation in a long-distance ski race, have a lower risk of CVD or death.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018. Vol. 4, no 2, p. 91-97
Keywords [en]
Incidence of cardiovascular disease, Physical activity, Lifestyle, Prevention, Cross-country skiing, Epidemiology, Vasaloppet
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-344291DOI: 10.1093/ehjqcco/qcy005ISI: 000429458200006PubMedID: 29390055OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-344291DiVA, id: diva2:1187969
Available from: 2018-03-06 Created: 2018-03-06 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved

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Hållmarker, UlfLindbäck, JohanMichaëlsson, KarlÅsberg, SignildLagerqvist, BoJames, Stefan K

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