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Performance and wake comparison of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines under varying surface roughness conditions
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5006-9231
Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Sch Engn Sci, CEID, Lappeenranta, Finland.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6372-3212
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
2019 (English)In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 458-472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A numerical study of both a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with similar size and power rating is presented. These large scale turbines have been tested when operating stand-alone at their optimal tip speed ratio (TSR) within a neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The impact of three different surface roughness lengths on the turbine performance is studied for the both turbines. The turbines performance, the response to the variation in the surface roughness of terrain, and the most relevant phenomena involved on the resulting wake were investigated. The main goal was to evaluate the differences and similarities of these two different types of turbine when they operate under the same atmospheric flow conditions. An actuator line model (ALM) was used together with the large eddy simulation (LES) approach for predicting wake effects, and it was implemented using the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) library OpenFOAM to solve the governing equations and to compute the resulting flow fields. This model was first validated using wind tunnel measurements of power coefficients and wake of interacting HAWTs, and then employed to study the wake structure of both full scale turbines. A preliminary study test comparing the forces on a VAWT blades against measurements was also investigated. These obtained results showed a better performance and shorter wake (faster recovery) for an HAWT compared with a VAWT for the same atmospheric conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 22, no 4, p. 458-472
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348690DOI: 10.1002/we.2299ISI: 000461904600002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-348690DiVA, id: diva2:1198216
Funder
StandUp for WindAvailable from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aerodynamic Studies of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines using the Actuator Line Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aerodynamic Studies of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines using the Actuator Line Model
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses the unsteady aerodynamics involved in the operation of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The main focus is to represent and understand the most relevant phenomena within the resulting flow pattern as the wake structure, loads on the different turbine components and the performance of the rotor. An actuator line model has been used for this purpose.

This model has been validated against experimental measurements from diverse cases with different operating conditions in both confined wind tunnels and open site locations. Numerical works were carried out considering a wide range of tip speed ratios (TSRs), and therefore covering from the no stall to the deep stall regime. The latter requires the implementation of a dynamic stall model for the proper representation of the unsteady forces on the blades. Also, different inlet conditions such as a uniform flow, a logarithmic wind shear and an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) have been tested. The so-called recycling method technique was used to produce the fully developed ABL flow. Additionally, the resulting wake and performance of interacting turbines has been studied.

Once the model was validated, two numerical study cases for large scale turbines were carried out. First, the performance and resulting flow field from both a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and VAWT were investigated when the turbines were operating at their optimal TSR and within the same ABL inflow boundary conditions. The influence of the variation on the atmospheric turbulence levels was also studied, as well as the differences and similarities on the obtained results for both type of turbines. Later, the performance improvement of two interacting VAWTs was investigated through the deflected wake produced by the pitched struts of the upstream turbine. This is presented as a novel mechanism to mitigate losses on interacting turbine arrangements (i.e. wind farms).

In general, there is a reasonable good agreement between numerical results and experimental measurements, and therefore, the applied ALM can be considered as a potential tool for VAWTs simulations, characterized by relatively low computational cost showing accuracy and numerical stability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 85
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1671
Keywords
wind power, vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs), actuator line model (ALM), dynamic stall model (DSM), atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), wake deflection, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348346 (URN)978-91-513-0338-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-05, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp for Wind
Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-04-11 Last updated: 2018-10-08

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Mendoza, VictorGoude, Anders

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