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Discordance between genomic divergence and phenotypic variation in a rapidly evolving avian genus (Motacilla)
Univ Washington, Dept Biol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Burke Museum Nat Hist & Culture, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
Univ Washington, Dept Biol, Seattle, USA.;Burke Museum Nat Hist & Culture, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
2018 (English)In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 120, p. 183-195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Generally, genotypes and phenotypes are expected to be spatially congruent; however, in widespread species complexes with few barriers to dispersal, multiple contact zones, and limited reproductive isolation, discordance between phenotypes and phylogeographic groups is more probable. Wagtails (Motacilla) are a genus of birds with striking plumage pattern variation across the Old World. Up to 13 subspecies are recognized within a single species, yet previous studies using mitochondrial DNA have supported polyphyletic phylogeographic groups that are inconsistent with subspecies plumage characteristics. In this study, we investigate the link between phenotypes and genotype by taking a phylogenetic approach. We use genome-wide SNPs, nuclear introns, and mitochondrial DNA to estimate population structure, isolation by distance, and species relationships. Together, our genetic sampling includes complete species-level sampling and comprehensive coverage of the three most phenotypically diverse Palearctic species. Our study provides strong evidence for species-level patterns of differentiation, however population-level differentiation is less pronounced. SNPs provide a robust estimate of species-level relationships, which are mostly corroborated by a combined analysis of mtDNA and nuclear introns (the first time-calibrated species tree for the genus). However, the mtDNA tree is strongly incongruent and is considered to misrepresent the species phylogeny. The extant wagtail lineages originated during the Pliocene and the Eurasian lineage underwent rapid diversification during the Pleistocene. Three of four widespread Eurasian species exhibit an east-west divide that contradicts both subspecies taxonomy and phenotypic variation. Indeed, SNPs fail to distinguish between phenotypically distinct subspecies within the M. alba and M. flava complexes, and instead support geographical regions, each of which is home to two or more different looking subspecies. This is a major step towards our understanding of wagtail phylogeny compared to previous analyses of fewer species and considerably less sequence data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE , 2018. Vol. 120, p. 183-195
Keywords [en]
Phylogenetics, Genetic differentiation, Plumage divergence, Mito-nuclear discordance
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Biological Systematics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350061DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.11.020ISI: 000426199700017PubMedID: 29246816OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-350061DiVA, id: diva2:1203924
Funder
NIH (National Institute of Health), S10RR029668NIH (National Institute of Health), S10RR027303Swedish Research Council, 2015-04402Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2018-05-04Bibliographically approved

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Alström, PerÖdeen, Anders

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