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A comprehensive genomic history of extinct and living elephants
Harvard Med Sch, Dept Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA..
Harvard Med Sch, Dept Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
Harvard Med Sch, Dept Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA..
Aarhus Univ, Bioinformat Res Ctr, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 11, p. E2566-E2574Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Elephantids are the world's most iconic megafaunal family, yet there is no comprehensive genomic assessment of their relationships. We report a total of 14 genomes, including 2 from the American mastodon, which is an extinct elephantid relative, and 12 spanning all three extant and three extinct elephantid species including an similar to 120,000-y-old straight-tusked elephant, a Columbian mammoth, and woolly mammoths. Earlier genetic studies modeled elephantid evolution via simple bifurcating trees, but here we show that interspecies hybridization has been a recurrent feature of elephantid evolution. We found that the genetic makeup of the straight-tusked elephant, previously placed as a sister group to African forest elephants based on lower coverage data, in fact comprises three major components. Most of the straight-tusked elephant's ancestry derives from a lineage related to the ancestor of African elephants while its remaining ancestry consists of a large contribution from a lineage related to forest elephants and another related to mammoths. Columbian and woolly mammoths also showed evidence of interbreeding, likely following a latitudinal cline across North America. While hybridization events have shaped elephantid history in profound ways, isolation also appears to have played an important role. Our data reveal nearly complete isolation between the ancestors of the African forest and savanna elephants for similar to 500,000 y, providing compelling justification for the conservation of forest and savanna elephants as separate species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATL ACAD SCIENCES , 2018. Vol. 115, no 11, p. E2566-E2574
Keywords [en]
paleogenomics, elephantid evolution, mammoth, admixture, species divergence
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350613DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720554115ISI: 000427245400014PubMedID: 29483247OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-350613DiVA, id: diva2:1209472
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved

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Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

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