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Gene expression profiling across ontogenetic stages in the wood white (Leptidea sinapis) reveals pathways linked to butterfly diapause regulation
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
Lund Univ, Biodivers Unit, Dept Biol, Lund, Sweden..
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2018 (English)In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 935-948Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In temperate latitudes, many insects enter diapause (dormancy) during the cold season, a period during which developmental processes come to a standstill. The wood white (Leptidea sinapis) is a butterfly species distributed across western Eurasia that shows photoperiod-induced diapause with variation in critical day-length across populations at different latitudes. We assembled transcriptomes and estimated gene expression levels at different developmental stages in experimentally induced directly developing and diapausing cohorts of a single Swedish population of L. sinapis to investigate the regulatory mechanisms underpinning diapause initiation. Different day lengths resulted in expression changes of developmental genes and affected the rate of accumulation of signal molecules, suggesting that diapause induction might be controlled by increased activity of monoamine neurotransmitters in larvae reared under short-day light conditions. Expression differences between light treatment groups of two monoamine regulator genes (DDC and ST) were observed already in instar III larvae. Once developmental pathways were irreversibly set at instar V, a handful of genes related to dopamine production were differentially expressed leading to a significant decrease in expression of global metabolic genes and increase in expression of genes related to fatty acid synthesis and sequestration. This is in line with a time-dependent (hour-glass) model of diapause regulation where a gradual shift in the concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites during development of larvae under short-day conditions leads to increased storage of fat, decreased energy expenditures, and ultimately developmental stasis at the pupal stage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY , 2018. Vol. 27, no 4, p. 935-948
Keywords [en]
developmental plasticity, diapause, gene expression, hour-glass model, Lepidoptera, monoamine neurotransmitter
National Category
Developmental Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-351766DOI: 10.1111/mec.14501ISI: 000428797100010PubMedID: 29411442OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-351766DiVA, id: diva2:1212936
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-4508]Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience, Backstrom_2014Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationAvailable from: 2018-06-04 Created: 2018-06-04 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Speciation genetics of recently diverged species:
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speciation genetics of recently diverged species:
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Species differentiation can be a consequence of evolutionary forces including natural selection and random genetic drift. Patterns of genomic differentiation vary across the tree of life. This variation seems to be dependent on, for example, differences in genomic architecture and molecular mechanisms. However, the knowledge we currently possess, both regarding the processes driving speciation and the resulting genomic signatures, is from a very small subset of the overall biodiversity that resides on the planet. Therefore, characterization of the architecture of genomic divergence from more organism groups will be important to understand the effects of molecular mechanisms and evolutionary forces driving divergence between lineages. Hence it has not been possible to come to a consensus on the relative importance of genetic drift and natural selection on divergence processes in general. In this thesis, I use genomic approaches to investigate the forces underlying species and population differentiation in the European cryptic wood white butterflies (Leptidea sinapisL. reali and L. juvernica) and two closely related bird species, the chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita abietinus) and the Siberian chiffchaff (P. tristis). Both these groups contain recently diverged species, a prerequisite for investigating initial differentiation processes. However, the study systems also differ in several respects, allowing for applying distinct approaches to understand the divergence process in each system.

In summary, by applying a suite of genomic approaches, my thesis work gives novel insights into the speciation history of wood whites and chiffchaff. I identify candidate genes for local adaptation in both systems and concludes that genome differentiation in wood white butterflies have been driven by a combination of random genetic drift and week directional selection in allopatry. In the chiffchaff, the general differentiation landscape seems to have been shaped by recurrent background selection (and potentially selective sweeps), likely as a consequence of regional variation in the recombination rate which has also been observed in other genome-scans in birds. Potentially, some of the highly differentiated regions contain barriers to gene-flow as these regions are still present in sympatry, where species exchange genetic material at a high rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 74
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1714
Keywords
Speciation, Leptidea, Lepidoptera, chiffchaff, Cryptic species, genome-scan, Diapause
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Evolutionary Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358292 (URN)978-91-513-0429-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-10-19, Lindahlsalen, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Norbyvagan 18, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-09-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-10-16

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Leal, LuisTalla, VenkatKällman, ThomasBackström, Niclas

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