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Constructing "the human face of the atrocities.": The Conceptualization of Male and Female Victims of Sexual Violence in the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the Former Yugoslavia.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History, The Hugo Valentin Centre.
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

At the outset of this thesis is the assumption that international criminal tribunals are not only the product of dominant narratives on peacebuilding and transitional justice, but produce and reproduce these narratives as well. In order to further explore these processes, norms relating to the prosecution of sexual violence in two international tribunals with different regional settings are examined. The aim is to answer the question of how male and female victims of sexual violence are conceptualized in the ICTY and the ICTR, using five cases from each tribunal. While the two ad hoc tribunals were founded by same mechanisms, human rights and transitional justice literature suggests different conceptualizations of a ‘European‘ and ‘African experience‘ within many transitional justice mechanisms. Within the two tribunals examined herein, this suggests the possibility of different ways of dealing with cases of ethnic violence and genocide as well.

A theoretical framework consisting of liberal peacebuilding, transitional justice and the discursive functions of trials, as well as Sara Meger’s application of securitization theory to the fetishization of sexual violence is employed. There are substantial differences both between the conceptualization of male and female victims, as is backed up by previous research, as well as between the tribunals. These suggest that sexual violence is securitized as well as fetishized in relation to female victims in both tribunals, but is creating different images of European and African victimized women. Moreover, the presence of male victims differs vastly between tribunals, but reveals blind-spots even when men are represented. Ultimately, the analysis reveals differing notions of victimhood, which re-enforce the purpose and legitimacy of the tribunals to varying degrees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018.
Keywords [en]
ICTY, ICTR, international criminal tribunal, genocide, ethnic cleansing, sexual violence, gender, legitimacy, transitional justice, fetishization, securitization, legitimacy
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352517OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-352517DiVA, id: diva2:1213792
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-06-11 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
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Language
  • de-DE
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  • en-US
  • fi-FI
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  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
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Output format
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