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Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Function of 4-tert-Butyl Pyridine for Interface Energy Level Adjustment in Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Xian Univ Architecture & Technol, Sch Environm & Municipal Engn, Xian 710055, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Organ Chem, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8249-1469
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2018 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 14, p. 11572-11579Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

4-tert-Butylpyridine (t-BP) is commonly used in solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) to increase the photovoltaic performance. In this report, the mechanism how t-BP functions as a favorable additive is investigated comprehensively. ssDSSCs were prepared with different concentrations of t-BP, and a clear increase in efficiency was observed up to a maximum concentration and for higher concentrations the efficiency thereafter decreases. The energy level alignment in the complete devices was measured using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The results show that the energy levels of titanium dioxide are shifted further away from the energy levels of spiro-OMeTAD as the t-BP concentration is increased. This explains the higher photovoltage obtained in the devices with higher t-BP concentration. In addition, the electron lifetime was measured for the devices and the electron lifetime was increased when adding t-BP, which can be explained by the recombination blocking effect at the surface of TiO2. The results from the HAXPES measurements agree with those obtained from density functional theory calculations and give an understanding of the mechanism for the improvement, which is an important step for the future development of solar cells including t-BP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 10, no 14, p. 11572-11579
Keywords [en]
mesoporous, TiO2, photovoltaic, dye, solar energy
National Category
Physical Chemistry Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-353206DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b16877ISI: 000430156000021PubMedID: 29560716OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-353206DiVA, id: diva2:1217420
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 226716Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved

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Yang, LeiSchölin, RebeckaBoschloo, GerritRensmo, HåkanEdvinsson, TomasJohansson, Erik M. J.

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