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A novel high-resolution multilocus sequence typing of Giardia intestinalis Assemblage A isolates reveals zoonotic transmission, clonal outbreaks and recombination
Stockholm Univ, Dept Mol Biosci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
Karolinska Inst, Integrated Cardio Metab Ctr, Novum, Box 285, SE-14157 Stockholm, Sweden.
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2018 (English)In: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, ISSN 1567-1348, E-ISSN 1567-7257, Vol. 60, p. 7-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Molecular epidemiology and genotyping studies of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis have proven difficult due to multiple factors, such as low discriminatory power in the commonly used genotyping loci, which has hampered molecular analyses of outbreak sources, zoonotic transmission and virulence types. Here we have focused on assemblage A Giardia and developed a high-resolution assemblage-specific multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. Analyses of sequenced G. intestinalis assemblage A genomes from different sub-assemblages identified a set of six genetic loci with high genetic variability. DNA samples from both humans (n = 44) and animals (n = 18) that harbored Giardia assemblage A infections, were PCR amplified (557-700 bp products) and sequenced at the six novel genetic loci. Bioinformatic analyses showed five to ten-fold higher levels of polymorphic sites than what was previously found among assemblage A samples using the classic genotyping loci. Phylogenetically, a division of two major clusters in assemblage A became apparent, separating samples of human and animal origin. A subset of human samples (n = 9) from a documented Giardia outbreak in a Swedish day-care center, showed full complementarity at nine genetic loci (the six new and the standard BG, TPI and GDH loci), strongly suggesting one source of infection. Furthermore, three samples of human origin displayed MLST profiles that were phylogenetically more closely related to MLST profiles from animal derived samples, suggesting zoonotic transmission. These new genotyping loci enabled us to detect events of recombination between different assemblage A isolates but also between assemblage A and E isolates. In summary, we present a novel and expanded MLST strategy with significantly improved sensitivity for molecular analyses of virulence types, zoonotic potential and source tracking for assemblage A Giardia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2018. Vol. 60, p. 7-16
Keywords [en]
Parasite, Diarrhea, Recombination, Zoonosis, Transmission
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-353095DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.02.012ISI: 000428317200002PubMedID: 29438742OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-353095DiVA, id: diva2:1221392
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-03364Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2018-06-20Bibliographically approved

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