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Quantitative market survey of non-woody plants sold at Kariakoo Market in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands; Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9505, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, United Nations Road, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, United Nations Road, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 222, p. 280-287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ethnopharmacological relevance: In Tanzania, traditional medicine plays a significant role in health care and local economies based on the harvesting, trade and sale of medicinal plant products. The majority of this plant ma- terial is said to originate from wild sources, and both traditional healers and vendors are concerned about the increasing scarcity of certain species.

Aim of the study: A market survey of non-powdered, non-woody medicinal plants was conducted at Kariakoo Market in Dar es Salaam, the major hub for medicinal plant trade in Tanzania, to assess sustainability of traded herbal medicine. Materials and Methods: For this study, fresh and dried herbs, seeds and fruits were collected and interviews were conducted to obtain information on vernacular names, preparation methods, monthly sales, uses and prices. Bundles of herbal medicine offered for sale were weighed and counted to calculate the value and volumes of daily stock at the market.

Results: A total of 71 medicinal plant products belonging to 62–67 different species from at least 41 different plant families were identified. We identified 45 plant products to species level, 20 products to genus level and four to family level. Plant species most encountered at the market were Suregada zanzibariensis, Myrothamnus flabellifolia and Sclerocarya birrea. The major use categories reported by the vendors were ritual purposes, di- gestive disorders and women's health. Annual sales are estimated to be in excess of 30 t and close to 200,000 USD, and trade in herbal medicine at Kariakoo Market provides subsistence income to many local vendors. Conclusions: A large diversity of wild-harvested plant species is traded as medicinal products in Tanzania, in- cluding species listed on CITES Appendices. Identifying and monitoring temporal changes in availability per season and from year to year will reveal which species are most affected by this trade, and help relevant au- thorities in Tanzania to find alternative sources of income for dependent stakeholders and initiate targeted efforts to protect threatened plant species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 222, p. 280-287
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Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355177DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.04.039ISI: 000436224700028OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-355177DiVA, id: diva2:1225433
Available from: 2018-06-27 Created: 2018-06-27 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Markets, mixtures and molecular methods: Investigating medicinal plant and edible orchid diversity in Tanzania and Zambia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Markets, mixtures and molecular methods: Investigating medicinal plant and edible orchid diversity in Tanzania and Zambia
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Medicinal plants are an important source of primary healthcare for many people in Tanzania. These medicinal plants are harvested from the wild, and increasing commercial trade poses a serious threat to local plant populations. Currently it is unknown which species are traded and in what amounts. Across the southwestern border in Zambia, the traditional dish chikanda has transformed from a niche product to being a mainstream delicacy. One of the main ingredients are wild-harvested orchids, and these have become depleted throughout the country as an effect of the increased trade. It is unclear which orchid species are targeted and might be at risk of overharvesting. The aims of my doctorate are to map harvest and trade of Tanzanian medicinal plants and Tanzanian and Zambian edible orchids, to investigate whether species that are traded on local markets can be identified using molecular methods such as DNA barcoding and metabarcoding and identify conservation issues arising from wild-harvesting of medicinal plants and edible orchids.

In Paper I DNA metabarcoding analysis of Tanzanian chikanda cake show the presence of 17 different orchids species belonging to the genera DisaSatyrium and Habenaria, and in Paper V the analysis of chikanda tubers sold on Zambian markets reveals that at least 16 orchid species from 6 different orchid genera are targeted in local orchid trade. Paper II describes a quantitative market survey of the non-woody, non-powdered medicinal plants sold on Kariakoo market in Dar-es-Salaam that shows that a total of 67 species are traded in an annual volume of nearly 31 tonnes of fresh and dried medicinal leaves, seeds and fruits with an estimated value of 200,000 USD. For Paper III 873 medicinal plant products were analysed using DNA barcoding, literature and morphology to determine which species are traded on the Dar-es-Salaam and Tanga markets. In total, 509 identifications could be made corresponding to 91 species, 124 genera and 65 plant families, and several cases of over- and under-differentiation were detected. Paper IV builds upon the identifications in Paper III to determine in what amount the medicinal plant species present at the local markets are traded and to investigate if commercial trade poses a threat to local plant populations. It was found that several of the most highly favored medicinal plants were perceived to becoming more difficult to obtain in the wild.

This thesis shows that DNA barcoding is a powerful rapid identification method for morphologically unidentifiable specimens. It also shows that commercialization of wild-harvested plant products threatens local plant populations, and highlights the need for conservation measures to avoid local extinction of economically and socially important plant species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 36
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1689
Keywords
DNA barcoding, Africa, Species delimitation, Orchids, Medicinal plants
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Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355182 (URN)978-91-513-0376-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-09-13, Zootissalen, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
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Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-06-27 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved

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Veldman, Sarinade Boer, Hugo J.

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