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Distance to Threat and Risk of Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery: A longitudinal study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6355-660x
2018 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 267, p. 461-466Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]
  • Environmental factors surrounding trauma influencing PTSD risk are understudied.
  • Proximal distances to threatening individuals could increase PTSD risk directly or indirectly by increasing ASD risk.
  • Proximity to robber, ASD and PTSD was assessed in bank employees following robbery.
  • We found that proximity to robber increase PTSD risk indirectly by increasing ASD risk.
  • We speculate that proximity to threat may increase stress and arousal making trauma memories intrusive.
Abstract [en]

Identifying pathways through which environmental risk factors influence PTSD is important for understanding PTSD etiology. Here, we hypothesized that the physical proximity to threat influences PTSD risk by increasing ASD following trauma. One hundred six bank employees who had experienced a bank robbery participated in the study. A longitudinal design assessing ASD at day 2 and PTSD at day 30 was used to test the hypothesis. Participants also indicated their location in the bank at the time of the robbery. ASD was identified in 40 (38%) and PTSD in 16 (15%) of the robbery victims. Distance to the robber had a strong effect on ASD (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.94-6.34) and a somewhat lesser effect on PTSD (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.04-4.46), indicating that the effect of proximity to threat on PTSD 1 month following trauma could be mediated by its effect on ASD 2 days following trauma. Using structural equation modeling, we confirmed that the effect of distance on PTSD was fully mediated by ASD. These findings suggest that proximity to threat may increase PTSD risk by enhancing the acute stress response following trauma.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2018. Vol. 267, p. 461-466
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355450DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.06.050ISI: 000445983700068OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-355450DiVA, id: diva2:1229051
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1160Länsförsäkringar ABAvailable from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved

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Frans, ÖrjanÅhs, Fredrik

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