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In vitro bioanalysis of drinking water from source to tap
Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Box 7028, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Box 7028, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5693-9007
Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Box 7028, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Box 7028, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
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2018 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 139, p. 272-280Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence of chemical pollutants in sources of drinking water is a key environmental problem threatening public health. Efficient removal of pollutants in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) is needed as well as methods for assessment of the total impact of all present chemicals on water quality. In the present study we have analyzed the bioactivity of water samples from source to tap, including effects of various water treatments in a DWTP, using a battery of cell-based bioassays, covering health-relevant endpoints. Reporter gene assays were used to analyze receptor activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) and induction of oxidative stress by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). DNA damage was determined by Comet assay. Grab water samples were concentrated by HLB or ENV solid phase extraction and the water samples assayed at a relative enrichment factor of 50. The enrichment procedure did not induce any bioactivity. No bioactivity was detected in Milli-Q water or drinking water control samples. Induction of AhR, ER and Nrf2 activities was revealed in source to tap water samples. No cytotoxicity, PPAR alpha or AR antagonist activity, or DNA damage were observed in any of the water samples. A low AR agonist activity was detected in a few samples of surface water, but not in the samples from the DWTP. The treatment steps at the DWTP, coagulation, granulated activated carbon filtration, UV disinfection and NH2CI dosing had little or no effect on the AhR, Nrf2 and ER bioactivity. However, nano filtration and passage through the distribution network drastically decreased AhR activity, while the effect on Nrf2 activity was more modest and no apparent effect was observed on ER activity. The present results suggest that bioassays are useful tools for evaluation of the efficiency of different treatment steps in DWTPs in reducing toxic activities. Bioassays of AhR and Nrf2 are useful for screening of effects of a broad range of chemicals in drinking water and ER activity can be monitored with a high sensitivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 139, p. 272-280
Keywords [en]
Bioassay, Effect-based assessment, Drinking water treatment, Estrogen receptor, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, Nrf(2)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358359DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.04.009ISI: 000434747700027PubMedID: 29656192OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-358359DiVA, id: diva2:1244298
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 222-2012-2124Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved

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Hellman, Björn

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