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Impact of snow on sound propagating from wind turbines
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1627-9096
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8383-944X
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
2018 (English)In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 1282-1295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of snow on sound propagating from a wind farm in northern Sweden has been investigated. Simultaneous acoustic and meteorological measurements, combined with daily snow observations, have been analysed for the snow season in 2013 to 2014. Such measurements are crucial since significant knowledge gaps exist, especially for conditions in cold climates, in the implementation of atmospheric boundary layer complexity in sound propagation models. The effect of snow on sound propagation is shown to be dependent on the snow quality. Moreover, snow on trees (upplega) also has an influence on sound propagation. Compared with conditions without snow on trees, the average sound level is approximately 2 dBA lower. The effect is more distinct for higher frequencies compared with lower frequencies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 21, no 12, p. 1282-1295
Keywords [en]
atmospheric acoustics, refraction, snow, wind turbine sound
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-360285DOI: 10.1002/we.2254ISI: 000449557300004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-360285DiVA, id: diva2:1247442
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40969-1Available from: 2018-09-12 Created: 2018-09-12 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wind Turbine Sound in Cold Climates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wind Turbine Sound in Cold Climates
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increase in the number of wind turbines (WTs) in populated areas in cold climates increases the number of people potentially being affected by WT sound. Outdoor sound propagation is strongly dependent on meteorological conditions, however, limitations in the knowledge exist regarding the implications of meteorological conditions in cold climates. Long-term acoustic and meteorological measurements were conducted in the vicinity of two wind farms in northern Sweden, to investigate the effect of snow and low-level wind maxima on WT sound, to analyse the occurrence of amplitude modulation and to evaluate selection methods for WT sound measurements. Different selection methodologies were applied to the acoustical data. The simplest method only includes a minimum rotational frequency of the WTs, while the most comprehensive method additionally includes criteria based on spectral resemblance, temporal variation of the sound level, amplitude modulation and wind speed. The effect of snow on WT sound depends on the snow quality. Snow on trees lowers the sound level by ca. 2 dBA. Low-level wind maxima below hub height reduce the sound level near the surface. Since this effect is increasing with increasing strength of the low-level wind maximum, the WT sound is assumed to be partly trapped above the low-level wind maximum. Amplitude modulation was shown to be dependent on atmospheric stability and was most common for very stable conditions. Moreover, a clear difference between the occurrences of amplitude modulation for the two crosswind sectors was observed. The choice of selection method needs to be taken into account when comparing different studies since it affects the results and conclusions. The studies emphasise to include the effects of individual meteorological conditions of a site in the formulation of guidelines on WT sound.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 47
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1784
Keywords
atmospheric acoustics, wind turbine sound, outdoor sound propagation, cold climates
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379554 (URN)978-91-513-0601-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-13, Axel Hamberg salen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-03-18 Last updated: 2019-12-18

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Conrady, KristinaSjöblom, AnnaLarsson, Conny

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