uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Knowledge elicitation as abstraction of purposive behaviour
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. (Technology in Human Reasoning)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5194-9430
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Researchers use knowledge elicitation methods to document expert knowledge for the primary purpose of understanding cognitive processes and with this understanding, technical solutions to resolve human factors issues can be produced. This dissertation offers a novel perspective on knowledge elicitation as an abstraction process. Such a theoretical framework has emerged by consolidating the ecological approach of Brunswikian psychology with the ideas of tacit and personal knowledge of Polanyian epistemology. Traditionally, knowledge elicitation has been considered an extraction process in which knowledge can be readily transferred from one individual to another. Here, this traditional position is rejected in favour of Polanyi’s premise that much of the knowledge individuals possess is tacit in nature, which implies that it cannot be documented easily, expressed in explicit form or explained. In this dissertation, knowledge is characterised as a personal process of knowing, highlighting context as a subjective knowledge structure of personal experiences that is formulated implicitly and indirectly over time through a dynamic interaction with the environment. Therefore, tacit knowledge cannot be articulated or shared; however, learners can be inspired by observing other individuals' purposive (i.e., goal-directed) behaviours and thus shape their own tacit knowledge once they practise the observed skills and develop conceptual understanding through reasoning about the learning process. Knowledge elicitation thereby makes use of observations, questions, or more structured process tracing methods in environments familiar to the observed individuals to elicit purposive behaviour from them. Accordingly, functional descriptions can be produced in this process that further conceptual understanding of a particular domain. Knowledge elicitation procedures are a powerful set of methods for reaching such functional descriptions. Moreover, by understanding the resulting knowledge elicitation data as an abstraction derived from multiple collection points in the same environment, the focus shifts from purely subjective mental constructs to the impact of environmental constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. , p. 82
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1765
Keywords [en]
knowledge elicitation, expertise, context, human factors
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Applied Psychology
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372725ISBN: 978-91-513-0555-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-372725DiVA, id: diva2:1277077
Public defence
2019-03-08, Sal IX, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-02-15 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-03-18
List of papers
1. Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
2018 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 101-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introducing automation in a human-machine system changes the tasks performed by human operators. It is difficult to analyse systems for which there are no experienced operators. This issue emerged within a project with the aim to develop a human–machine interface for a highly automated long-haul vehicle. To handle the problem, a formative strategies analysis method with promises to enable desktop analyses through predefined strategy categories was adopted. The method was used to investigate strategies for controlling the future long haul vehicle by conducting workshops with today's drivers. The method was shown to be a valuable asset in eliciting strategies for revolutionary design.

Keywords
Cognitive work analysis, strategies analysis, automation, revolutionary systems design, long haul trucks
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292799 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2017.1278805 (DOI)000428728900006 ()
Projects
MODAS
Funder
VINNOVA, 2012-03678
Available from: 2017-01-27 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
2. Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach
2015 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 474-494Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-249009 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2015.1027322 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-04-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
3. On the importance of mental time frames: A case for the need of empirical methods to investigate adaptive expertise
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the importance of mental time frames: A case for the need of empirical methods to investigate adaptive expertise
2018 (English)In: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, ISSN 2211-3681, E-ISSN 2211-369X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352734 (URN)10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.12.004 (DOI)000429489400010 ()
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2018-03-03 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
4. Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic Control
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The present study investigated differences in visual expertise across levels of proficiency in train traffic control during a simulated scenario. Eye tracking metrics found to correlate with expertise reported in a meta-analysis on visual expertise were used. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the same results found in the meta-study could be obtained in the less controlled and dynamic work environment of train traffic control. Studies of this character are rare and also notoriously difficult to conduct due to a high level of potential noise. Results of the study indicates that eye behaviour seemed to correlate with years of experience also in a more naturalistic setting, but it did not correlate with expert ranking by instructors or a post-hoc measure of proactivity in task performance. A discussion is provided where a delineation of experience and expertise is made in light of differences between eye movement behaviour and cognitive aspects of problem-solving.

Keywords
visual expertise, eye tracking, experience, train traffic control, rail human factors
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372696 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-09

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1493 kB)74 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1493 kBChecksum SHA-512
9272db75bd05c3f06bdf66fd94dc11f1458b204afe55215955b0e928c7919ed05c28daf5541adb42b123af22f51fb156afd70f7e41c2a42990d0388581eed2d3
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Buy this publication >>

Authority records BETA

Axelsson, Anton

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Axelsson, Anton
By organisation
Division of Visual Information and InteractionComputerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction
Human Computer InteractionApplied Psychology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 74 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 394 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf